middle voice

adj. or n. The voice that denotes verbal action in which the subject is being affected by its own action or is acting upon itself.


n. Cursive script; or a manuscript written in this style. adj. Designating this style. Minuscule script became the norm for manuscript production after the ninth century, whereupon these manuscripts grew to outnumber uncial manuscripts ten to one. Minuscules are designated by Arabic numerals without a zero preceding (e.g., 1739). Also referred to as a running hand.


n. The Greek translation of the Old Testament produced around 200 b.c. to accommodate Hellenization. The Septuagint rapidly became the Bible of synagogue worship and Jewish instruction, and in the New Testament is cited more frequently than the original Hebrew. Tradition said that there were seventy translators (Lat. septuaginta, “seventy”; abbreviated lxx). In their translating they were, quite naturally, heavily influenced by the Old Testament; an echo of Septuagintal idiosyncrasies is also found in certain New Testament writers. See also Aramaism, Semitism.

pronominal suffix

n. A verbal ending that conveys the subject’s person and number. Also called personal ending.

Byzantine text-type

n. One of several text-types, disseminated throughout the Byzantine Empire and discernible in the majority of extant manuscripts (thus it is often referred to as the Majority Text). This text provided the basis for Erasmus’s edition of the Greek New Testament, the Textus Receptus and the King James Version. Also called the Alpha, Antiochene, Koine, Lucianic or Syrian text.

constative aorist

n. An aorist tense verb that, along with other contextual features, presents the action simply, in summary, or as a whole. Also called complexive, comprehensive, global, historical, punctiliar, simple or summary. See John 1:11; Romans 5:14; Revelation 20:4.


n. A hypothetical Hebrew or Aramaic document that served as a source in the production of the Synoptic Gospels (Germ. “original Gospel”).


adj. or n. An extinct language that developed from ancient Egyptian, in which portions of the Bible are extant (in several Coptic dialects). The language survives today exclusively as a liturgical language of the Coptic Church.


n. A book of moral instruction (διδαχή), including a manual of church life and practice, written as if coming from the apostles (The Teaching of the Lord Through the Twelve Apostles to the Nations). The Didache is usually dated in the early second century. The term is sometimes used generally of catechetical material of the early church in contrast to kerygma (preaching).