Syntax Summaries

The following material summarizes the basic categories found in the body of this work. Every category is mentioned by title; for some, the key to identification is also listed (in italics); for others, other helpful information is supplied. Every category that has at least relatively frequent occurrences in the NT is listed in bold print. As well, the rarest categories and disputed categories are listed in smaller type. The pages where the section can be found are listed in parentheses. At the end of this summary is a "Cheat Sheet" with titles in small type.

Nouns and Nominals

The Cases

(specific designation)

Primary Uses (38-49)

1. Subject: subject of finite verb (38-40)

2. Predicate Nominative: approximately same as subject; can be in convertible or subset propositions (40-48)

3. Nominative in Simple Apposition: two adjacent substantives that refer to the same thing/person (48-49)

Grammatically Independent Uses of the Nominative (49-60)

1. Nominative Absolute: in introductory material (not sentences) (49-51)

2. Nominativus Pendens (Pendent Nominative): logical rather than syntactical subject at beginning of a sentence (51-53)

3. Parenthetic Nominative: subject of an explanatory clause within another clause (53-54)

4. Nominative in Proverbial Expressions: in proverbial expressions that have no finite verb (54-55)

5. Nominative for Vocative (Nominative of Address) (56-59)

6. Nominative of Exclamation: exclamation without grammatical connection to rest of sentence (59-60)

Nominatives in Place of Oblique Cases (61-64)

1. Nominative of Appellation: a title that functions like a proper name, as if in quotes (61)

2. Nominative in Apposition to Oblique Cases (62)

3. Nominative After a Preposition: ἀπὸ ὁ ὤν in Rev 1:4 only (62-64)

4. Nominative for Time (64)

(direct address & exclamation)

Direct Address (67-70)

1. Simple Address: without ω (except in Acts) (67-68)

2. Emphatic (or, Emotional) Address: with ω (except in Acts) (68-69)

Exclamation (70)

Exclamation with no grammatical connection

Apposition (70-71)

Two adjacent substantives that refer to the same thing/person

(qualification & [occasionally] separation)

Adjectival (78-107)

1. Descriptive Genitive: characterized by, described by (79-81)

2. Possessive Genitive: belonging to, possessed by (81-83)

3. Genitive of Relationship: family relationship (subset of possessive) (83-84)

4. Partitive Genitive ("Wholative"): denotes the whole of which the head noun is a part-which is a part of (84-86)

5. Attributive Genitive: specifies an attribute or innate quality of the head substantive; convert genitive into an attributive adjective (86-88)

6. Attributed Genitive: semantically opposite of attributive genitive; convert head noun into adjective modifying the genitive noun (89-91)

7. Genitive of Material: made out of, consisting of (91-92)

8. Genitive of Content: full of, containing (related to noun or verb) (92-94)

9. Genitive in Simple Apposition: genitive substantive adjacent to another genitive substantive, referring to the same thing/person-namely, which is (94)

10. Genitive of Apposition (Epexegetical): genitive states a specific example of which the head noun names a category-namely, which is (95-100)

11. Genitive of Destination (a.k.a. Direction or Purpose): for the purpose of, destined for, toward, or into (100-101)

12. Predicate Genitive: simple apposition in genitive case made emphatic by participial form of the equative verb (102)

13. Genitive of Subordination: specifies that which is subordinated to or under the dominion of the head noun-over (103-104)

14. Genitive of Production/Producer: genitive produces the noun to which it stands related-produced by (104-106)

15. Genitive of Product: genitive is the product of the noun to which it stands related-which produces (106-107)

Ablatival Genitive (107-12)

1. Genitive of Separation: genitive indicates that from which the verb or sometimes head noun is separated-out of, away from, or from (107-109)

2. Genitive of Source (or Origin): the source from which the head noun derives or depends-out of, derived from, dependent on, or "sourced in" (109-10)

3. Genitive of Comparison: genitive after a comparative adjective, translated than (110-12)

Verbal Genitive (i.e., Genitive Related to a Verbal Noun) (112-21)

1. Subjective Genitive: functions as subject of verbal idea implicit in head noun (113-16)

2. Objective Genitive: functions as direct object of verbal idea implicit in head noun (116-19)

3. Plenary Genitive: both subjective and objective (e.g., "Revelation of Jesus Christ" = "revelation about and from Jesus Christ") (119-21)

Adverbial Genitive (121-30)

1. Genitive of Price or Value or Quantity: the price paid for the word to which it is related-for (122)

2. Genitive of Time (kind of time): within which or during which (122-24)

3. Genitive of Place (where or within which): the place within which the verb to which it is related occurs (124-25)

4. Genitive of Means: the means by which the verbal action is accomplished-by (125)

5. Genitive of Agency: the personal agent by whom the action in view is accomplished; related to -τος adjective; by (126-27)

6. Genitive Absolute: see participles (127)

7. Genitive of Reference: with reference to (127-28)

8. Genitive of Association: in association with (128-30)

After Certain Words (131-36)

1. Genitive After Certain Verbs (as a Direct Object): especially after verbs of sensation, emotion/volition, sharing, ruling (131-34)

2. Genitive After Certain Adjectives (and Adverbs): certain adjectives (such as ἄξιος, "worthy [of]") and adverbs normally take a genitive "object" (134-35)

3. Genitive After Certain Nouns: occurs after certain nouns whose lexical nature requires a genitive (135)

4. Genitive After Certain Prepositions: certain prepositions take the genitive after them (see chapter on prepositions) (136)

(personal interest, reference, position, & means)

Pure Dative Uses (140-53)

1. Dative Indirect Object: dative noun is that to or for which the action of a transitive verb is performed-to, for (140-42)

2. Dative of Interest (including Advantage [commodi] and Disadvantage [incommodi]) (142-44)

a. Advantage: for the benefit of or in the interest of (142-44)

b. Disadvantage: for/unto the detriment of or to the disadvantage of or against (142-44)

3. Dative of Reference/Respect: with reference to (144-46)

4. Ethical Dative: the person whose feelings or viewpoint are intimately tied to the action-as far as I am concerned, in my opinion (146-47)

5. Dative of Destination: the "to" idea when a nontransitive verb is used (147-48)

6. Dative of Recipient: would be an indirect object, but it appears in verbless constructions (such as in titles and salutations) (148-49)

7. Dative of Possession: that to which the subject of an equative verb belongs-belonging to (149-51)

8. Dative of Thing Possessed (disputed): who possesses (151)

9. Predicate Dative: simple apposition in dative case made emphatic by participial form of the equative verb (152)

10. Dative in Simple Apposition: dative substantive adjacent to another dative substantive, referring to the same thing/person (152-53)

Local Dative Uses (153-58)

1. Dative of Place: see dative of sphere (with which it is combined) (153)

2. Dative of Sphere: the sphere or realm in which the word to which the dative is related takes place or exists-in the sphere of (153-55)

3. Dative of Time (when): the time when the action of the main verb is accomplished-usually a point in time (155-57)

4. Dative of Rule: the standard of conduct to which a person conforms-according to, or in conformity with (157-58)

Instrumental Dative Uses (158-71)

1. Dative of Association/Accompaniment: the person or thing one associates with or accompanies-in association with (159-61)

2. Dative of Manner (or Adverbial Dative): the manner in which the action of the verb is accomplished (answering "How?")-with, in (161-62)

3. Dative of Means/Instrument: the means or instrument by which the verbal action is accomplished-by means of, with (162-63)

4. Dative of Agency: the personal agent by whom the action of the (passive) verb is accomplished-by (163-66)

5. Dative of Measure/Degree of Difference: by before a quantitative word in the dative (typically, πολλῷ [dative] + μᾶλλον) (166-67)

6. Dative of Cause: the cause or basis of the action of the verb-because of, on the basis of (167-68)

7. Cognate Dative: cognate to the verb either formally or conceptually; translate like an adverb (168-69)

8. Dative of Material: the material that is used to accomplish the action of the verb; a quantitative word-"I write with pen (means) and ink (material)" (169-70)

9. Dative of Content: the content that is used by a verb of filling-with (170-71)

Dative After Certain Words (171-75)

1. Dative Direct Object: dative direct object, often involving personal relationship (171-73)

2. Dative After Certain Nouns: after a verbal noun; personal interest usually present; dative often corresponds to direct object-"service to the saints" = "serve the saints" (173-74)

3. Dative After Certain Adjectives: several adjectives take a dative; personal relation usually involved; no set pattern of translation (174-75)

4. Dative After Certain Prepositions: certain prepositions take a dative (see chapter on prepositions) (175)

(extent or limitation)

Substantival Uses of the Accusative (179-99)

1. Accusative Direct Object: the immediate object of the action of a transitive verb (179-81)

2. Double Accusatives (181-89)

a. Person-Thing: certain verbs take two direct objects, one a person and the other a thing (e.g., teaching, anointing, asking ["I teach you Greek"]) (181-82)

b. Object-Complement: one accusative is the object, the other is its complement; equivalent to subject-predicate nominative ("I call him lord") (182-89)

3. Cognate Accusative (Accusative of Inner Object): direct object that shares lexically or conceptually the idea of the verb ("do not treasure treasures") (189-90)

4. Predicate Accusative: simple apposition made emphatic by a copula in participial form or infinitival form (an accusative related to subject of infinitive) (190-92)

5. Accusative Subject of Infinitive: accusative of reference that functions like subject of infinitive ("I want you to know") (192-97)

6. Accusative of Retained Object: the accusative of thing in a double accusative person-thing construction with an active verb retains its case when the verb is put in the passive ("I taught you the lesson" becomes "You were taught the lesson by me") (197)

7. Pendent Accusative (Accusativum Pendens): accusative thrown forward to the beginning of the clause, followed by a sentence in which it is replaced by a pronoun in the case required by the syntax-with reference to (subset of acc. of reference) (198)

8. Accusative in Simple Apposition: accusative substantive adjacent to another accusative substantive, referring to the same thing/person (198-99)

Adverbial Uses of the Accusative (199-205)

1. Adverbial Accusative (Accusative of Manner): qualifies the action of the verb rather than indicating quantity or extent of the verbal action (δωρεάν is most frequent-freely) (200-201)

2. Accusative of Measure (or Extent of Space or Time): for the extent of, for the duration of (rare with space, common with time) (201-203)

3. Accusative of Respect or (General) Reference: restricts the reference of the verbal action-with reference to (203-204)

4. Accusative in Oaths: the person or thing by whom or by which one swears an oath (204-205)

Accusative After Certain Prepositions (205)

Certain prepositions take the accusative after them