Syntax of the Pronoun

Personal Pronouns

§ 1. In their full form the Personal pron. are employed only in the Nom. case. In the oblique cases (Gen., Acc.) they are attached in the form of suffixes to other words. On the Cases, cf. § 18, Gr. § 17.

When a pron. in the oblique case is repeated for the sake of emphasis, it is put in the absolute form. Gen. as suff. 1 Ki. 21:19 ‏דָּמְךָ גַּם אַתָּה‎ thine own blood. 2 Sa. 17:5 ‏מַה־בְּפִיו גַּם־הוּא‎ what is in his mouth also. Nu. 14:32, 2 Sa. 19:1, Jer. 27:7, Eze. 23:43, Ps. 9:7, Pr. 23:15. Or gen. with prep. 1 Sa. 25:24 ‏בִּי־אֲנִי הֶֽעָוֹן‎ on me be the guilt. 1 K. I. 26, Ezr. 7:21. In the acc. Gen. 27:34 ‏בָּֽרֲכֵנִי גַם־אָנִי‎ bless me too. Pr. 22:19. So when emphasis falls on noun in the oblique case. Gen. 4:26 ‏לְשֵׁת גַּם־הוּא‎ to Seth also. Gen. 10.21.—Cf. these exx. Gen, 30:20; 41:10, 1 Chr. 23:13.

Rem. 1. Occasionally oblique case has full form. 2 Ki. 9:18 ‏עַד הֵם‎ if reading right, cf. v. 20. Neh. 4:17 ‏אֵין אֲנִי‎ the pron. being co-ordinated with the following nouns. Cases like Isa. 18:2 are different, ‏מִן־הוּא‎ being = ‏מֵֽאֲשֶׁר הוא‎ (‏היה‎) since it was. Nah. 2:9 ‏מִימֵי הִיא‎ = ‏מִימֵי אשׁר היא‎ since the days she was, i.e. all her days, cf. 2 Ki. 7:7. Such a sense is usually ‏מִיָּמֶיהָ‎ (1 Sa. 25:28, 1 Ki. 1:6, Job 27:6; 38:12), and the text is doubtful. Jer. 46:5 ‏הֵמָּה הַתִּים‎ is a clause, ‏הַתִּים‎ pred. and ‏המה‎ subj., though the consn. is more usual with finite form than with ptcp. Judg. 9:48, 2 Sa. 21:4, Lam. 1:1, Neh. 13:23. Ps. 89:48 ‏אני‎ stands for emphasis first: remember, I, what transitoriness! But cf. v. 51. In 1 Chr. 9:22 ‏הֵמָּה‎ seems really obj. to verb as in Aram. Ezr. 5:12. So Moab. Stone, 1:18.

Rem. 2. When 3 p. pr. is used neuterly for it, it may be mas. or fem. In Pent., where ‏הוא‎ is common, the gend. is matter of pointing, Ex. 1:16; and everywhere the pron. is apt by attraction to take the gend. of pred., Deu. 4:6; 30:20, Eze. 10:15, Ps. 73:16, Job 31:11, Jer. 10:3. The fem., however, is usual when pron. refers back to some action or circumstance just spoken of, particularly if suff., Jos. 10:13, Judg. 14:4, Gen. 24:14 ‏וּבָהּ אֵדַע‎ and thereby (the circumstance) shall I know. Isa. 47:7 ‏לא זָכַרְתְּ אַֽחֲרִיתָהּ ‎ thou thoughtest not on the issue of it (the conduct described). Gen. 42:36; 47:26, Ex. 10:11, Nu. 14:41; 23:19, 1 Sa. 11:2, 1 Ki. 11:12. So the verb, Judg. 11:39 ‏וַתְּהִי חֺק‎ and it became a rule. Isa. 7:7; 14:24.

Rem. 3. By a common gramm. negligence the mas. pron., esp. as suff., is used of fem. subjects. Isa. 3:16 ‏וּבְרַגְלֵיהֶם תְּעַכַּסְנָה‎ make a tinkling with their feet. Gen. 26:15; 31:9; 32:16; 33:13, Ex. 1:21, Nu. 27:7, 1 Sa. 6:7, 10, Am. 4:1, Ru. 1:8, 22, Song 4:2; 6:8.

§ 2. The oblique cases of the Pers. pron. appear in the form of suffixes to nouns, verbs, and particles. (a) Suffixes to nouns are in gen., and are equivalent to our possessive pron. Gen. 4:1 ‏אִשְׁתּוֹ‎ his wife, 4:10 ‏אָחִיךָ‎ thy brother. This gen. is usually gen. of subj., as above, but may be gen. of obj., Gen. 16:5 ‏חֲמָסִי‎ my wrong (that done me). 18:21. Cf. § 23, R. 1.

If several nouns be coupled by and, suff. must be repeated with each. Deu. 32:19 ‏בָּנָיו וּבְנֹתָיו‎ his sons and daughters. Gen. 38:18 ‏חֹתָֽמְךָ וּפְתִֽילְךָ וּמַטְּךָ‎ thy seal and string and staff. Exceptions are very rare even in poetry. Ex. 15:2, 2 Sa. 23:5.

The suff. of prep. and other particles, which are really nouns, must also be considered in gen. Gen. 3:17 ‏בַּֽעֲבוּרֶךָ‎ for thy sake, 39:10 ‏אֶצְלָהּ‎ beside her (at her side).

(b) The verbal suff. is in acc. of direct obj. Gen. 3:13 ‏הַנָּחָשׁ הִשִּׁיאַנִי‎ the serpent beguiled me. 4:8 ‏וַיַּֽהַרְגֵהוּ‎ and slew hint. See § 73, R. 4. The suff. to ‏אֵת‎ is also acc. Gen. 40:4 ‏וַיְשָׁרֶת אֺתָם‎ he served them. 41:10.

§ 3. The adj. being but feebly developed the relation of a noun to its material, quality, and the like is often expressed by the gen. ‏הַר קֺדֶשׁ‎ hill of holiness, holy hill. In such cases the suff. is gen. to the whole expression. Ps. 2:6 ‏הַר קָדְשִׁי‎ my holy-hill. Isa. 2:20 ‏אֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ‎ his idols-of-gold. 13:3; 30:22, 23; 53:5. On constructions like Lev. 6:3 ‏מִדּוֹ בַד‎ his linen garment, see Nomin. Appos.

The noun with suff., forming a definite expression, the qualifying adj. has the Art. Gen. 43:29 ‏הֲזֶה אֲחִיכֶם הַקָּטֺן‎ is this your youngest brother.

Rem. 1. The suff. to some particles which have a certain verbal force, as ‏הִנֵּה‎ behold, ‏יֵשׁ‎ there is, ‏אַיִן‎ there is not, ‏עוֹד‎ still, are partly verbal in form (Gr. § 49). But suff. of 1st pers. is ‏בְּעוֺדִי‎ in the sense while I have being; Ps. 104:33; 146:2, and ‏מֵֽעוֺדִי‎ since I had being, Gen. 48:15 (Nu. 22:30). In ordinary sense Ps. 139:18.

Rem. 2. These uses of the suff. are to be noted. Ex. 2:9 ‏אֶתֵּן את־שְׂכָרֵךְ‎ I will give thy hire, i.e. give thee hire. Gen. 30:18, Judg. 4:9 ‏לא תִֽהְיֶה תִּפְאַרְתִּךָ‎ the glory shall not be thine. Gen. 39:21 ‏וַיִּתֵּן חִנּןֹ‎ gave him favour. Eze. 27:15 rendered thee tribute. Nu. 12:6, text doubtful. Ps. 115:7? Job 6:10, Hos. 2:8 (her wall = a wall against her).

Rem. 3. 1 Sa. 30:17 ‏לְמָֽחֳרָתָם‎ their following day, the use of suff. is unique in Heb., though something analogous is common in Ar. The text is dubious.

Demonstrative Pronoun

§ 4. The Demons. pron. ‏זֶה‎ and ‏הוּא‎ are used as in Eng. Judg. 4:14 ‏זֵה הַיּוֹם‎ this is the day. Gen. 41:28 ‏הוּא הַדָּבָר‎ that is the thing. Deu. 1:1 ‏אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים‎ these are the words. On their use as adj. § 32, and R. 3.

In usage ‏זה‎ refers to a subject when first mentioned, or when about to be mentioned ( = the following), while ‏הוא‎ refers back to a subj. already spoken of. Judg. 7:4, of whom I shall say ‏זֶה יֵלֵךְ אִתָּךְ הוּא יֵלֵךְ‎ this one shall go with thee, that one shall go. Gen. 42:14 ‏הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתִּי‎ that is what I said to you. 32:3; 44:17. So the common prophetic phrase ‏בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא‎ on that day (time just spoken of), Isa. 4:2.

The pron. ‏זה‎ is used almost as a noun in all the three cases. Gen. 29:27 ‏שְׁבֻעַ זאֹת‎ the week of this one. 1 Ki. 21:2. Gen. 2:23 ‏לְזאֹת יִקָּרֵא‎ this shall be called. 1 Sa. 21:12, 1 Ki. 22:17. Isa. 29:11 ‏קְרָא־נָא זֶה‎ read this (writing). 2 Sa. 13:17 ‏שִׁלְחוּ־נָא אֶת־זאֹת‎ send this person away; and mas. with same contemptuous sense, 1 Ki. 22:27 (1 S. 21:16). 2 Ki. 6:20 ‏פְּקַח את־עֵֽינֵי־אֵלֶּה‎ open the eyes of these men. Gen. 29:33. Pron. ‏הוא‎ is not used in this way, though cf. 1 Ki. 20:40.

Rem. 1. When this, that are used neuterly while ‏הוּא‎ is perhaps more common than fem. (Gen. 42:14, Am. 7:6), ‏זאֹת‎ is much oftener used than mas. Gen. 42:18 ‏זאֹת עֲשׂוּ וִֽחְיוּ‎ do this and ye shall live. 42:15 ‏בְּזאֹת‎ by this shall ye be proved. Isa. 5:25 ‏בבל־זאת‎ for (amidst) all this. Isa. 9:11, 20; 10:4, Hos. 7:10, Am. 7:3. The mas., however, is not unusual, esp. in the sense of such, Gen. 11:6, 2 Ki. 4:43. The distinction between this and that stated above is usually preserved, but this thing, these things seem exclusively used. Gen. 24:9; 15:1; 20:8.

§ 5. When ‏זה‎ is repeated it is equivalent to this... that, the one... the other. Isa. 6:3 ‏וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה‎ and the one called to the other. 1 Ki. 3:23 ‏וְזאֹת אֺמֶרֶת‎... ‏זאֹת אֺמֶרֶת‎ this one says... and the other says. Jos. 8:22 ‏אֵלֶּה מִזֶּה וְאֵלֶּה מִזֶּה‎ some on this side and some on that side. Ex. 14:20, 2 Sa. 2:13, 1 Ki. 20:29; 22:20, Ps. 20:8; 75:8, Job 1:16, Dan. 12:2. Comp. 1 Ki. 20:40 thy servant ‏עשֵֹׁה הֵנָּה וָהֵנָּת‎ was busy with this and that, where gen. as Deu. 25:16 ‏עשֵֺׁה אֵלֶּה‎.

§ 6. As in other languages, the Demons. have come to be treated as adjectives. They necessarily make their noun definite, and then conform so much to the usage of adj. as themselves to take the Art. Isa. 4:2 ‏בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא‎ on that day. Occasionally, however, Art. is wanting, Gen. 19:33 ‏בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא‎ that night, 30:16; 32:23, 1 Sa. 19:10, Ps. 12:8. The Art. is always wanting when Demons. adj. qualifies a noun determined by a suff. Ex. 10:1 ‏אֺתֺתַי אֵלֶּה‎ these my signs. With another adj. or several Demons. stands last. Gen. 41:35. See § 32. The form ‏הַלָּזֶה‎ yonder is generally used as adj. Gen. 24:65; 37:19, Judg. 6:20, 1 Sa. 17:26, 2 Ki. 4:25; as pron. Dan. 8:16.

Rem. 1. In some cases the Demons., as a substantive definite of itself, seems to stand in appos. with the defined noun, Ps. 104:25, Ezr. 3:12, Song 7:8. Text of 1 Ki. 14:14 is obscure, and 2 Ki. 6:33, 1 Chr. 21:17 are doubtful. With proper names, Ex. 32:1 ‏זה משֶׁה‎, Judg. 5:5. With noun defined by suff., Josh 9:12, 13, Hab. 1:11. The noun is rarely undefined, Ps. 80:15 ‏נֶּפֶן זאת‎ this vine, Mic. 7:12 (text uncertain). Phenic. says ‏קבר ז‎ this grave, and ‏הקבר ז‎. Cf. Moab. St. 1:3 ‏הבמת זאת‎ this high place. In Ar. Demons. being a noun, stands in appos., before the noun if defined by Art., and after if a proper name or defined by suff.

Rem. 2. The Demons., particularly ‏זה‎, is used with interrogatives to add emphasis or vividness to the question. Gen. 27:21 ‏הַֽאַתָּה זֶה בְּנִי‎ art thou my son Esau? See § 7c.

In the same way force is added to adverbial and particularly temporal expressions. 1 Ki. 19:5 ‏וְהִנֵּה־זֶה מַלְאָךְ‎ and lo! an angel. 1 Kings 17:24 ‏עַתָּה זֶה יָדַעְתִּי‎ now indeed I know!

2 Ki. 5:22 have just come to me. Gen. 27:36 ‏זֶה פַֽעֲמַיִם‎ now twice; 31:38 ‏זֶה עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה‎ twenty years now. 31:41; 43:10; 45:6, Nu. 22:28, Deu. 8:2, Judg. 16:15, 1 Sa. 29:3, 2 Sa. 14:2, Job 19:3.

Rem. 3. The form ‏זה‎ is often a relative in poetry (as in Aram., Eth.). Like ‏אשׁר‎ it suffers no change for gend. and number. Job 19:19 ‏וְזֶה אָהַבְתִּי נֶהְפְּכוּ־בִי‎ and they-whom I loved are turned against me. Ps. 74:2; 78:54; 104, 8; Pr. 23:22, Job 15:17. The form ‏זוּ‎ (Ps. 132:12 ‏זוֹ‎) is still oftener used. Ex. 15:13, Isa. 42:24; 43:21, Ps. 9:16; 10:2; 17:9; 31:5; 32:8; 68:29; 143:8.

Rem. 4. The Demons. unites with prepp. to form adverbial expressions. See Lex. On its union with ‏כ‎ to express such, cf. § 11, R. 1e.