Α, α, τό indecl. (s. ἄλφα) first letter of the Gk. alphabet, alpha (cp. SibOr 5, 15) hence as numeral αʹ=1 (one εἷς or first πρῶτος e.g. TestSol, PVindobBosw at 18:34; oft. in pap): πρώτη (or πρωτέρα?, in pap freq.=πρότερον, q.v.) in titles of letters ἐπιστολή: 1 Cor; 1 Th; 1 Ti; 1 Pt; 1J; 1 Cl; ἐντολή Hm 1, title. As a symbolic letter Α signifies the beginning, Ω the end (FBoll, Sphaera 1903, 469ff). The two came to designate the universe and every kind of divine and superhuman power. S. Rtzst., Poim. 256ff, Erl—sungsmyst. 244; FBoll, Aus d. Offb. Joh. 1914, 26f. The Sator-anagram of Pompeii (JDani—lou, Primitive Christian Symbols, tr. DAttwater '64, 99-101) offers the earliest Christian usage. In the expr. ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ ἄλφα καὶ τὸ ὦ the letters are explained as beginning and end Rv 1:8 v.l.; 21:6 (s. OWeinreich, ARW 19, 1919, 180f); as first and last 1:11 v.l.; and as both 22:13 (cp. Mel., P. 105, 812 [B]). Is. 44:6 offers precedent for the πρῶτος/ἔσχατος in this and related rabbinic symbolism.—S. on Ω and FCabrol, Dict. d'Arch. I, 1, 1-25; FDornseiff, D. Alphabet in Mystik u. Magie2 1925, 17f; 122ff; RCharles, HDB I 70.—TW.
Ἀαρών, ὁ indecl. (אַהֲרוֹן) (LXX, Philo.—In Jos. Ἀαρών, ῶνος [Ant. 3, 54]; Just.) Aaron brother of Miriam (Ex 15:20) and of Moses (Ex 4:14) Ac 7:40 (Ex 32:1). Embodies the (high) priesthood (Ex 28:1; Num 3:10) Hb 5:4; 7:11; θυγατέρες Ἀ. Lk 1:5 (Just.).—GEb 13, 75. The strife of Aaron and Miriam w. Moses (Num 12; also Demetrius: 722 fgm. 2, 3 Jac.) 1 Cl 4:11; the test of the rods (Num 17) 43:5; Hb 9:4.—New Docs. 1, 66f. TW.
Ἀβαδδών, ὁ indecl. (אֲבַדּוֹן Pr 15:11; Ps 87:12; Theod. Job 26:6; 28:22=ἀπώλεια LXX) Abaddon, name of the ruling angel in hell Rv 9:11, explained as Ἀπολλύων Destroyer (cp. אָבַד). This name for the ἄγγελος τῆς ἀβύσσου and its transl. are based on the OT passages above, in which ἀπώλεια is parallel to ᾅδης=שְׁאוֹל Job 26:6 Theod.; Pr 15:11 and to τάφος Ps 87:12. In Theod. Job 28:22 it is personified, together with θάνατος; cp. the derivation of Apollo, source of plagues, from ἀπόλλυμι.—TW.
ἀβαναύσως adv. of uncertain mng.; not in narrow-minded fashion, unselfishly, nobly prob. do justice to the term; λειτουρ—γεῖν ἀ. beside ἀμέμπτως, μετὰ ταπεινοφροσύνης and ἡσύχως 1 Cl 44:3. The adj. ἀβάναυσος stands betw. εὔσπλαγχνος and ἀγαπητικός Const. Apost. 2, 3, 3 and is understood by the Syrian of the Didasc. Apost. Syr. (p. 35 Lewis) as תָ×ַן kind; cp. Clem. Al., Paed. 3, 34 φιλανθρώπως, οὐ βαναύσως.—DELG. s.v. βάναυσος.
ἀβαρής, ές, gen. οῦς (Aristot. et al.; s. N—geli 38) lit. 'light in weight', only fig. not burdensome (CIG 5361, 15 [I bc] ἀ. ἑαυτὸν παρέσχηται; BGU 248, 26 [II ad] ἐάν σοι ἀβαρὲς ᾖ; 1080, 17; POxy 933, 29 et al.) ἀβαρῆ ἐμαυτὸν ὑμῖν ἐτήρησα I kept myself fr. being a burden to you 2 Cor 11:9.—DELG. s.v. βαρύς. M-M.
ἀββα (accented ἀββά in W-H. and N.25; others ἀββᾶ; Aram. אַבָּא vocative form, orig. a term of endearment, later used as title and personal name; rarely used in ref. to God) father, translit. abba, Aram. form used in prayer (Dalman, Worte 157) and in the family circle, taken over by Greek-speaking Christians as a liturgical formula (Ltzm., Hdb. on Ro 8:15), transl. ὁ πατήρ (=voc., s. s.v. πατήρ) Mk 14:36; Ro 8:15; Gal 4:6. Not found in patristic lit.—CFabricius, RSeeberg Festschr. 1929, I 21-41; SMcCasland, JBL 72, '53, 79-91; JJeremias, Abba '66, 15-67 (Central Message of the NT '65, 9-30); against him, JGreig, Studia Evangelica 5, '68, 5-10.—TW. Sv.
Ἀβ(ε)ιρών, ὁ indecl. (אֲבִירָם) (LXX.—In Joseph. Ἀβίρα—μος, ου [Ant. 4, 19]) Abiram, son of Eliab, w. Dathan and On leader of a rebellion of the sons of Reuben against Moses and Aaron (Num 16); ex. of fatal jealousy 1 Cl 4:12; GJs 9:2.
Ἅβελ, ὁ indecl. (Ἄβελ edd.—הֶבֶל, in pause הָֽבֶל) (LXX, En, TestAbr, Test12Patr, ApcMos, Philo; Mel., P. 59, 430; 69, 498.—In Joseph. Ἄβελος, ου [Ant. 1, 67]), Abel, son of Adam (Gen 4); Abel's blood Mt 23:35; Lk 11:51; Hb 12:24 (En 22:7); his sacrifice 11:4; 1 Cl 4:1f; cp. 6.—VAptowitzer, Kain u. Abel 1922.—TW.
Ἀβιά, ὁ indecl. (אֲבִיָּה) Abijah, B-D-F —3
1 Son of Rehoboam (1 Ch 3:10), an ancestor of Jesus Mt 1:7ab.
2 Founder of the class of priests to which Zacharias belonged (1 Ch 24:10; 2 Esdr 22:16f; the name Zacharias occurs in the latter pass.) Lk 1:5. S. ἐφημερία, Ζαχαρίας.
Ἀβιαθάρ, ὁ (Ἀβιάθαρ edd.) indecl. (אֶבְיָתָר) (in Joseph. Ἀβιάθαρος, ου [Ant. 7, 110]) Abiathar, priest at Nob (1 Km 22:20ff), son of Ahimelech (1 Km 21:2, 7) Mk 2:26, where he is mentioned in place of his father.
Ἀβιληνή, ῆς, ἡ (Ἄβειλ W-H.) Abilene, the territory around the city of Abila (τὰ Ἄβιλα) at the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon range, northwest of Damascus; administered by Lysanias the tetrarch. Lk 3:1.—S. lit. on Λυσανίας.