πνεῦμα [Stg: ]

pneúma; gen. pneúmatos, neut. noun from pnéō , to breathe.

(I) Breath.

(A) Of the mouth or nostrils, a breathing, blast (2 Thess. 2:8, "spirit [breath] of his mouth," spoken of the destroying power of God; Sept.: Isa. 11:4). Of the vital breath (Rev. 11:11, "breath of life" [a.t.]; Sept.: Gen. 6:17; 7:15, 22 [cf. Ps. 33:6]).

(B) Breath of air, air in motion, a breeze, blast, the wind (John 3:8; Sept.: Gen. 8:1; Isa. 7:2).

(II) Spirit.

(A) The vital spirit or life, the principle of life residing in man. The breath breathed by God into man and again returning to God, the spiritual entity in man (Sept.: Gen. 2:7; Ps. 104:29; Eccl. 12:7). The spirit is that part that can live independently of the body (Christ [Matt. 27:50, He gave up the spirit when He died; Luke 23:46 [cf. Ps. 31:5]; John 19:30]; Stephen [Acts 7:59]). "Her spirit came again and she arose" (Luke 8:55 [cf. James 2:26]; Rev. 13:15; Sept.: Gen. 45:27; Judg. 15:19). Metaphorically (John 6:63, "the spirit in man gives life to the body, so my words are spirit and life to the soul" [a.t.]; 1 Cor. 15:45, "a quickening spirit," a spirit of life as raising the bodies of his followers from the dead into the immortal life [cf. Phil. 3:21]).

(B) The rational spirit, mind, element of life. (1) Generally, spirit distinct from the body and soul. See also Luke 1:47; Heb. 4:12. Soul and spirit are very closely related because they are both immaterial and they both contrast with body (sóma ) and flesh (sarx ). Scripture, however, introduces a distinction between the two immaterial aspects of man's soul and spirit. That they cannot mean the same thing is evident from their mention together in 1 Thess. 5:23, spirit, soul, body. The same distinction is brought out in Heb. 4:12. The spirit is man's immaterial nature which enables him to communicate with God, who is also spirit. 1 Cor. 2:14 states that "the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God . . . because they are spiritually discerned." What is translated "natural man" in Gr. is psuchikós , psychic or soulish meaning the soul of man. The soul is the aspect of his immaterial nature that makes him aware of his body and his natural, physical environment. The difference between soul and spirit is not one of substance but of operation. Man's immaterial aspect is represented in Scripture by the single terms pneúma, spirit, or psuché, soul, or both of them together (Gen. 35:18; 41:8; 1 Kings 17:21; Ps. 42:6; Eccl. 12:7; Matt. 10:28; 20:28; Mark 8:36, 37; 12:30; Luke 1:46; John 12:27; 1 Cor. 15:44; 1 Thess. 5:23; Heb. 4:12; 6:18, 19; James 1:21; 3 John 1:2; Rev. 6:9; 20:4). In 1 Cor. 5:3 a distinction is made between the body and the spirit (see also 5:4, 5; 6:20; 7:34; 2 Cor. 7:1; Phil. 3:3; Col. 2:5; Heb. 12:9; 1 Pet. 4:6; Sept.: Num. 16:22; 27:16; Zech. 12:1). Where soul and body are not expressed (Rom. 8:16, "the divine Spirit itself testifies to our spirit" [a.t.], meaning to our mind; see Rom. 1:9; Gal. 6:18; 2 Tim. 4:22; Phile. 1:25). In John 4:23, 24, "in spirit and in truth" means with a sincere mind, with a true heart, not with mere external rites. See Phil. 3:3, where the spirit stands in juxtaposition to the body. (2) As the seat of the affections, emotions, and passions of various kinds as humility (Matt. 5:3, "poor in spirit," meaning those who recognize their spiritual helplessness; see ptōchós , poor or helpless, and Sept.: Ps. 34:18); enjoyment, quiet (1 Cor. 16:18; 2 Cor. 2:13; 7:13); joy (Luke 10:21). Of ardor, fervor (Acts 18:25; Rom. 12:11). In Luke 1:17, in the powerful spirit of Elijah (see 1:12). Of perturbation from grief, indignation (John 11:33; 13:21; Acts 17:16; Sept.: Isa. 65:14). (3) As referring to the disposition, feeling, temper of mind (Luke 9:55; Rom. 8:15, a slavish spirit, as distinct from the spirit of adoption; 11:8; 1 Cor. 4:21; Gal. 6:1, a mild, gentle spirit). In 1 Cor. 14:14, "my spirit prays" means "my own feelings find utterance in prayer, but I myself do not understand what I am praying" (a.t. [see 14:15, 16]; 2 Cor. 4:13; 11:4; 12:18; Eph. 2:2; 4:23; Phil. 1:27; 2:1; 2 Tim. 1:7; James 4:5 [cf. Prov. 21:10, 26]; 1 Pet. 3:4; Sept.: Eccl. 4:4 [cf. Num. 5:30]; Ezek. 11:19; 18:31). (4) As implying will, counsel, purpose (Matt. 26:41; Mark 14:38; Acts 18:5 [TR]; 19:21; 20:22; Sept.: 1 Chr. 5:26). (5) As including the understanding, intellect (Mark 2:8; Luke 1:80; 2:40; 1 Cor. 2:11, 12; Sept.: Ex. 28:3; Job 20:3; Isa. 29:24). (6) The mind or disposition as affected by the Holy Spirit. See below III, D, 2, e.

(III) A spirit; a simple, incorporeal, immaterial being (thought of as possessing higher capacities than man does in his present state).

(A) Spoken of created spirits: (1) Of the human soul or spirit, after its departure from the body and as existing in a separate state (Heb. 12:23, "to the spirits of the just men," referring to those men advanced to perfect blessedness and glory; 1 Pet. 3:19, "by which [spirit] also he once preached to those spirits now in prison" [a.t.], referring to the Spirit of Christ testifying through Noah, Christ testifying by His spirit between His death and resurrection, or Christ proclaiming victory in the triumphant procession of His ascension to the right hand of the Father [cf. 2 Pet. 2:4, 5]). See Acts 23:8. Of the soul of a person reappearing after death, a spirit, ghost (Luke 24:37, 39; Acts 23:9). (2) Of an evil spirit, demon, mostly used with the adj. akátharton , unclean, as an unclean spirit (Matt. 10:1; 12:43, 45; Mark 1:23, 26, 27; 3:11, 30; 5:2, 8, 13; 6:7; 7:25; 9:17, a spirit that could not speak; 9:25; Luke 4:33, unclean spirit of a demon; 4:36; 6:18; 7:21; 8:2, 29; 9:42; 11:24, 26; 13:11, "a spirit of infirmity," meaning causing infirmity; Acts 5:16; 8:7; 16:16, "a spirit of divination," a soothsaying demon; 19:12, 13, 15, 16; Rev. 16:13, 14; 18:2). Used in an absolute sense (Matt. 8:16; Mark 9:20; Luke 9:39; 10:20; Eph. 2:2, meaning Satan). (3) Less often in the pl., of angels as God's ministering spirits (Heb. 1:14; Rev. 1:4, the seven archangels; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6).

(B) Of God in reference to His incorporeality (John 4:24, "God is spirit" [a.t.]).

(C) Of Christ in His exalted spiritual nature, His nature as true and proper God, in distinction from His human nature (1 Pet. 3:18, referring to the spiritual exaltation of Christ after His resurrection to be Head over all things through the church [cf. Eph. 1:20–22]); in which spiritual nature also He is said in 1 Peter 3:19 to have preached to "the spirits in prison." See above III, A, 1. See Rom. 1:4; 1 Cor. 15:45; 2 Cor. 3:17; 1 Tim. 3:16; Heb. 9:14 (cf. 9:13).

(D) Of the Spirit of God. In the NT, referred to as "the Spirit of God," "the Holy Spirit," in an absolute sense as "the Spirit"; the Spirit of Christ as being communicated by Him after His resurrection and ascension. The same as the Spirit of Jesus (Acts 16:7 UBS); Christ (Rom. 8:9; 1 Pet. 1:11); the Spirit of Jesus Christ (Phil. 1:19); the Spirit of the Lord (2 Cor. 3:17); the Spirit of God's Son (Gal. 4:6). The Holy Spirit is everywhere represented as being in intimate union with God the Father and God the Son. The passages with this meaning in the NT may be divided into two classes: those in which being, intelligence, and agency are predicated of the Spirit; and, metonymically, those in which the effects and consequences of this agency are spoken about. (1) The Holy Spirit as possessing being, intelligence, agency. (a) Joined with the Father and the Son, with the same or with different predicates (Matt. 28:19, "baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost," see ónoma , name, IV; 1 Cor. 12:4, 6, "but the same spirit . . . the same Lord . . . the same God"; 2 Cor. 13:14; 1 Pet. 1:2; Jude 1:20, 21; see 1 John 5:7). (b) Spoken in connection with or in reference to God, ho Theós, the God, ho Patér , the Father, where intimate union or oneness with the Father is predicated of pneúma, the Spirit (John 15:26, "the Spirit of truth" [a.t.]); see below d. Where the same omniscience is predicated of the Spirit as of ho Theós, the God (1 Cor. 2:10, 11). Where the same things are predicated of the Spirit which in other places are predicated of ho Theós, the God, such as in the narrative of Ananias and Sapphira in Acts 5:3, 9 (where Peter refers to the Holy Spirit and then, in 5:4, where he alludes to God). As speaking through the prophets of the OT (Acts 1:16 [cf. 3:21; 4:24, 25). In Acts 28:25, "well did the Holy Spirit speak through Isaiah" (a.t. [cf. Isa. 6:8, 11; Heb. 3:7 {cf. Ps. 95:7}; Heb. 9:8 {cf. 1:1}; Heb. 10:15 {cf. Jer. 31:31}]). Generally, as speaking and warning men through prophets and apostles (Acts 7:51 [cf. 7:52]). Where a person is said to be born of the Spirit, i.e., spiritual salvation, the new spiritual life imparted to those who believe in the gospel (John 3:5, 6, 8 [cf. John 1:13, if it is taken to refer to the believer instead of the Word]). Where the Spirit is said to dwell in or be with Christians (Rom. 8:9, 11; 1 Cor. 3:16; 6:19; Eph. 2:22; 2 Tim. 1:14 [cf. John 14:23; 2 Cor. 6:16]). Where the Spirit and God are interchanged (1 Cor. 12:11 [cf. 12:7]; Eph. 6:17). (c) Spoken in connection with or in reference to Christ; joined with Christós , Christ, in a form of an oath (Rom. 9:1; 15:30 in a solemn calling upon as a witness "for the love of the Spirit"; 1 Cor. 6:11, in the renewal and sanctification of Christians, "ye are sanctified . . . and by the Spirit of our God." See also 2 Cor. 3:17, 18 (cf. 3:8); Heb. 10:29. Thus we see that the Spirit and Christ are said to be or dwell with men (see above b and cf. with John 14:23; 15:4; 2 Cor. 13:5; Eph. 3:17). The Holy Spirit, having descended in a bodily form upon Jesus after His baptism (Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22; John 1:32, 33). (d) As coming to and acting upon Christians, illuminating and empowering them. As coming to Christians and remaining with them, imparting to them spiritual knowledge, aid, consolation, sanctification, and making intercession with and for them (John 14:17, 26; 15:26, the divine Spirit who will impart the knowledge of the divine truth; 16:13; Rom. 8:14, 16, 26, 27; 14:17; 15:13, 16; 2 Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 3:16; 6:18; 1 Thess. 1:6; 2 Thess. 2:13; 1 Pet. 1:22). Where someone is said to grieve the Holy Spirit (Eph. 4:30 [cf. Isa. 63:10]). Thus, the Holy Spirit is represented as the author of revelations to men through the prophets of the OT. Of that authority through which prophets and holy men were motivated when they are said to have spoken to or acted in the Spirit or through the Spirit, meaning by inspiration (Matt. 22:43; Mark 12:36; 1 Pet. 1:11; 2 Pet. 1:21), or as communicating a knowledge of future events (Acts 10:19; 20:23; 21:11; 1 Tim. 4:1; Rev. 19:10); communicating instruction, admonitions, warnings, invitations through the Apostles (Rev. 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22; 14:13; 22:17), the Spirit and the whole Church. Of the Spirit teaching, enlightening, and guiding Christians in respect to faith and practice (Luke 11:13; John 7:39 [cf. 16:13, 14]; Rom. 5:5; 1 Cor. 12:3; 2 Cor. 3:3; Gal. 5:5; Titus 3:5; Heb. 6:4; 1 Pet. 4:14). Also 1 Cor. 2:10 (cf. above b). As speaking through disciples when brought before rulers (Matt. 10:20; Mark 13:11; Luke 12:12). As qualifying the Apostles to propagate the gospel powerfully (Acts 1:8); aiding in edifying and comforting the churches (Acts 9:31); directing in the appointment of church officers (Acts 20:28); assisting to speak and hear the gospel (1 Cor. 2:13, in words taught, suggested by the Holy Spirit; 2:14). Emphatically, as the Spirit of the gospel (2 Cor. 3:17, see above c [cf. 2, c below]). Used emphatically as the Spirit of the gospel, i.e., the gospel in contrast to the letter of Mosaic Law (2 Cor. 3:6, 8 [cf. 3:17]). See above 1, d. (2) Used to indicate the work resulting from the immediate agency of the Holy Spirit, such as the power of the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:8). Spoken: (a) Of the role of the Holy Spirit in the miraculous conception of the Lord Jesus (Luke 1:35, equivalent to "the power of the Highest" in the next clause). See also Matt. 1:18, 20. (b) Of that special authority which rested upon and empowered the Lord Jesus after the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Him at His baptism (Luke 4:1 [cf. 3:22]; John 3:34); also Matt. 12:18 quoted from Isaiah 42:1; Luke 4:18 quoted from Isaiah 61:1; Acts 1:2; 10:38; 1 John 5:6, 8 [cf. Heb. 9:14]). As prompting Him to various actions (e.g., to go into the desert and be tempted [Matt. 4:1; Mark 1:12; Luke 4:1], and afterwards to return into Galilee [Luke 4:14]). As authorizing Him to cast out demons (Matt. 12:28 [cf. Luke 11:20]). In connection with this occasion, the Holy Spirit is said to be capable of being blasphemed against (Matt. 12:31, 32; Mark 3:29; Luke 12:10 [cf. Matt. 12:28]). (c) Of John in the Revelation as being in the Spirit, meaning rapt in prophetic vision (Rev. 1:10; 4:2; 17:3; 21:10). Of the Spirit resting upon John the Baptist (Luke 1:15); Elizabeth (Luke 1:41); Zacharias (Luke 1:67); Simeon (Luke 2:25–27). The technical expression "to be baptized in [or with] the Holy Spirit" (a.t.) by Christ as the work which Christ was going to do as declared by John the Baptist, referring to the spiritual baptism into the body of Christ for all those who were truly saved (Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:8; Luke 3:16; John 1:33; Acts 1:5; 11:16; 1 Cor. 12:13). (d) Of that authority of the Holy Spirit by which the Apostles were qualified to act as directors of the church of Christ (John 20:22, 23). Specifically, of the empowerment imparted by the Holy Spirit on and after the Day of Pentecost, by which the apostles and early Christians were endowed with high supernatural qualifications for their work; knowledge equivalent to a full knowledge of gospel truth and the power of prophesying, working miracles, and speaking with languages previously unknown to them; all done in evidence of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. This baptism in the Holy Spirit as a historical event occurred on three distinct occasions: at Jerusalem, baptizing Jews into Christ's body; at Caesarea, baptizing Gentiles into His body; and, at Ephesus, similarly baptizing the disciples of John the Baptist (Acts 2:1–21; 10:44–48; 19:1–7). The baptism with the Holy Spirit is not an experience to be sought by believers today. It is a historical event, even as the incarnation, the crucifixion, the resurrection, and the ascension of Christ, which, on the exercise of genuine faith by the individual seals that person as a member of the body of Christ. This is as a result of the miraculous application of what Christ did in history for all who would believe (1 Cor. 12:13). The baptism of the Holy Spirit, which attached believers to the body of Christ, is to be distinguished from the continued and repeated experience of the inner filling by the Holy Spirit which is for service (Eph. 5:18). The prophet Joel prophesied about the coming of the Holy Spirit (Joel 2:28, 29 [cf. Acts 2:4, 18, 33, 38; 5:32; 8:15, 17–19; 10:44, 45, 47; 11:15, 24; 13:9; 15:8; 19:2]). Joel, however, prophesied the outpouring of the Holy Spirit not only in connection with the first coming of the Lord Jesus, but also in connection with His Second Coming (Joel 2:10, 11) when the events described in Matt. 24:29 concerning the sun, moon, and the stars will take place (Joel 2:30, 31). (e) The Holy Spirit prompts one to do or restrain from doing particular actions (Acts 6:3, 5, 10; 8:29, 39 [cf. Matt. 4:1]; Acts 13:2, 4; 15:28; 16:6, 7); encourages holy boldness, energy, and zeal in speaking and acting (Acts 4:8, 31; 6:3, 5, 10 [cf. 6:8]); is the medium of divine communications and revelations (Acts 11:28; 21:4; Eph. 3:5); is the source of support, comfort, Christian joy and triumph (Acts 7:55; 13:52; Eph. 5:18; Phil. 1:19). In the pl., pneúmata means spiritual gifts (1 Cor. 14:12). (f) Spoken of that divine influence by which the temperament or disposition of mind in Christians is affected, i.e., correcting, elevating, and ennobling, filling the mind with peace and joy. The spirit in this case stands opposed to the flesh (John 3:6; Rom. 8:1) because it does not indulge in the depraved affections and lusts of our physical natures and unrenewed hearts, but follows those holy and elevated actions and desires which the Spirit imparts and cherishes (Rom. 8:2, 4–6, 9, 13). Through the influence of the Spirit of God, Christians have the same disposition and the same frame of mind with Christ (Gal. 5:16–18, 22, 25; 6:8). In Rom. 8:9, having "the Spirit of Christ" means having the same mind as Christ possessed which is wrought in us by the Spirit (cf. Rom. 7:6; 8:15, a spirit of sonship, a filial spirit, 8:23; 1 Cor. 2:12; 2 Cor. 6:6; Gal. 4:6; Eph. 1:17, "the spirit of wisdom and illumination" [a.t.] imparted by the Holy Spirit; 2:18, 22; 3:16, 17; 4:3, 4; 5:9; Col. 1:8; 1 Tim. 4:12; Jude 1:19). (3) Metonymically spoken of a person or teacher who acts or professes to act under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit by divine inspiration (1 Cor. 12:10, "discerning of spirits" of teachers, a critical faculty of the mind quickened by the Holy Spirit, consisting not only of the power of discerning who was a prophet and who was not, but also of a distinguishing in the discourses of a teacher what proceeded from the Holy Spirit and what did not. Also 1 John 4:1–3, 6).

Deriv.: pneumatikós , spiritual.

Syn.: phántasma , a phantom, apparition, as spoken of a spirit, ghost; psuché , soul; noús , mind; phrónēma , state of mind.

Pnoé , breath, wind, may be considered syn. only because of its common derivation with pneúma (from pnéō , to breathe, blow) which, however, as a subst. should be translated "breath" (Acts 17:25) or "wind" (a.t. [Acts 2:2]). An attempt to substitute spirit for breath would indicate the definite difference between the two words (as evidenced in Acts 23:8, 9; Rom. 2:29; 1 Cor. 5:5; 2 Cor. 7:1; Gal. 6:18). The same logical conclusion would be arrived at if the substitution for the word psuché is made with pnoé, breath (see Matt. 10:28; Luke 12:19; 1 Thess. 5:23; James 5:20; 2 Pet. 2:8).

In the OT the word nephesh (, OT), soul, is translated psuché in the Sept and ruah (, OT), spirit, is translated in the Sept pneúma. The soul stands for the natural life regarded from the point of view of its separate individuality (Gen. 2:7; 17:14), while spirit is the principle of life considered as flowing from God Himself (Job 27:3; Ps. 51:10; Eccl. 12:7), who is thus called "the God of the spirits of all flesh" (Num. 16:22; 27:16). The Apostle Paul follows this distinction of the OT words referring to the soulish (psuchikós) man as one who by nature is apart from divine grace, and to spiritual (pneumatikós ), as applying to the new man in whom the Spirit of God has taken up His abode (Rom. 8:9).

Ant.: ousía , substance; ógkos , a mass; prágma , matter; skénōma , the body; phúsis , nature, from which the Eng. "physics" is derived.

Sóma , body, is the material part of man (in contrast to the spiritual which is represented by pneúma which gives man the ability to communicate with God, while psuché gives man a consciousness of his environment). See sárx , flesh (John 3:6–8). Only man is said to have a spirit (John 6:63). Because God is Spirit He can only be worshiped in spirit (John 4:24 [cf. Rom. 8:15f.]; Eph. 2:18). It is the spirit in man which responds to the Spirit of God. The Spirit of God in man guides him to and in all the truth (John 16:13; Rom. 8:16).

Another ant. of spirit is grámma , letter, referring to something that is visible or to a literal interpretation, as distinct from the spirit or spiritual interpretation (Rom. 2:29; 2 Cor. 3:6).

—Complete Word Study Dictionary, The