Part 1. Doctrinal Foundation (1:1-12)

The first epistle of Peter should be viewed in the light of the authors stated purpose. In 5:12 Peter declares, "I have written to you briefly, encouraging you and testifying that this is the true grace of God. Stand fast in it." His fundamental purpose was to establish his suffering Christian readers in their faith. The entire letter is an earnest appeal for them to staunchly maintain their stand in the true grace of God that they have experienced. That hortatory approach is the basic feature of the epistle.

But Peter well knew that Christian exhortation, to be vital and transforming, must be grounded in Christian doctrine. Therefore, he skillfully laid such a foundation in the first twelve verses of the epistle. The opening salutation, rich in doctrinal content (1:1-2), indicates the need for a firm grasp of the realities underlying the Christian life. Peter's grand doxology of praise to God for the marvelous salvation He has provided in Christ Jesus (1:3-12) forms a solid foundation for the urgent exhortations that constitute the body of the letter (1:13-5:11).

I. The Opening Salutation

1:1-2 Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ,

To God's elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia,2 who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood:

Grace and peace be yours in abundance.

The salutation conforms to the conventional three-point opening employed in first-century correspondence: writer, readers, greeting. But it differs from the familiar Pauline salutation by employing a finite verb with the third member, thus making the first two members an independent construction. Paul followed the terse Greek formula and did not use a verb with "grace and peace"; Peter followed the pattern used in the letters in Daniel 4:1 and 6:25, "Peace be multiplied unto you" (ASV).

Each of the three parts of the salutation might be expanded according to the situation confronted and the author's purpose. Peter expanded each and gave them a distinctive Christian content. But his main expansion concerned the identification of his readers, and that indicates his central concern in writing.

A. The Writer (v. 1a)

The writer's name, "Peter," would at once establish his identity for his Christian readers. He was the only man in the New Testament with that name. "Peter" (Petros) is the Greek form of the Aramaic name Cephas, both of which mean "stone" or "rock." It was given to him by Jesus as a prophetically descriptive title when Peter first met Christ (John 1:42). It was reaffirmed by Jesus after Peter's great confession (Matt. 16:18), when the prophecy was beginning to be fulfilled. Farrar suggests that if Peter had been writing exclusively to Jewish Christians, he would probably have used the Aramaic rather than the Greek form of his new name.

He was originally known by the common Jewish name Simon (Matt. 4:18; Mark 3:16; John 1:41) or the Hebraic Symeon (Acts 15:14). The numerous references to him in the gospels indicate a gradual shift from Simon to Simon Peter or Peter. Apparently, however, his original name continued to be used sporadically (Acts 15:14; 2 Peter 1:1). In non-Jewish Christian circles the name Peter was commonly used. Perhaps Peter prized that Christ-given name as a constant challenge to maintain the steadfastness of character it implied.

The appositional expansion "an apostle of Jesus Christ" is not defensive. Huther notes, "An addition such as dia thelēmatos theou ["through the will of God"], or the like, of which Paul oftentimes, though not always, made use in the superscriptions of his epistles, was unnecessary for Peter." Unlike Paul, Peter's apostolic status was never questioned. This brief phrase indicates Peter's authority. No further explanation of the source or nature of his apostleship was needed. The indefinite article in the English translation "an apostle" (Greek has no indefinite article) does not mean that Peter was only one of a group of apostles. Nor did he write the apostle, as though claiming superiority among the apostles. The noun without an article is qualitative. Peter identified himself as "apostle of Jesus Christ." The possessive genitive defined whose apostle he was, "Jesus Christ's apostle." He was acting as His agent, having been commissioned by Christ to tend His sheep (John 21:15-17).

The noun "apostle" is a compound derived from the verb stellō, "to make ready, send," and the preposition apo, "off, away from"; it has the basic meaning of one sent forth by another on a mission. In a general sense it might be used of an individual who for a limited time was commissioned to act as the authorized representative of another for a specific assignment. Paul applied the term to Epaphroditus, who had been sent to minister to him as the representative of the Philippian church (Phil. 2:25; cf. 2 Cor. 8:23). In Acts 14:14 it is used of Barnabas and Paul as the missionaries sent out by the church at Antioch.

But Peter used the term in the restricted sense of an official apostle of the church, one chosen and commissioned by Christ Himself. In Acts 1:21-22 he mentioned the basic qualifications for the office (cf. John 15:27; 1 Cor. 9:1; 15:8-9; Paul used apostle to refer to himself as one chosen and commissioned by the risen Christ and so as one who had equal authority with the twelve).

By designating himself an "apostle of Jesus Christ," Peter called attention not to himself but to the One who commissioned him. The double designation "Jesus Christ" indicates His true nature. "Jesus" (Iēsous) is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua. Both mean "salvation of Jehovah" (Matt. 1:21). It is the name of His humanity, denoting the Jesus whom Peter first met along the shores of the Jordan River (John 1:40-42), the One recognized by His followers as the promised Messiah. "Christ" is the Greek translation of the Hebrew term Messiah (transliterated Messias in John 1:41 and 4:25) and means "anointed." For Peter and the early church, the name Jesus Christ embodied their basic conviction that the human Jesus was the anointed Messiah, the bringer of messianic redemption. "Jesus is the Christ" thus became the earliest Christian confession (Acts 2:36; 3:20; 5:42; cf. John 20:30-31). Early in the gospels "the Christ" is a designation of the expected Messiah (Matt. 2:4; John 1:20; etc.), not a personal name. But because Christian faith inseparably identified the Christ with Jesus, "Christ" came to be used as a personal name; but it never lost its messianic connotations (cf. 1 Pet. 2:21-24).

The order "Jesus Christ" reflects Peter's personal experience with the central Person of Christianity That order is always used by the New Testament writers as consistent with their experience, except Paul who also uses the order "Christ Jesus"; this order reflects his experience on the Damascus road. The glorified "Christ" who arrested the persecutor identified Himself as indeed the man "Jesus" whom Saul regarded as a blasphemer. Paul's unique experience transformed him into the unswerving messenger of "Christ Jesus."

B. The Readers (vv. 1b-2a)

The recipients of the epistle are identified at considerable length (1:1b-2a). In the original there is no definite article in the lengthy designation. That suggests that Peter was not merely concerned with their identity but with their spiritual character. In view of the difficult situation they faced, Peter's "concern is to emphasize, in the most solemn manner, the supernatural vocation of his correspondents, which should be their sheet-anchor in their trials." The entire designation is best viewed as a unit. Peter delineated the true character (v. 1b), geographic location (v. 1c), and spiritual supports of the readers (v. 2a).

1. True Character of the Readers (v. 1b)

"To God's elect, strangers in the world" translates three words in the original (eklektois parepidēmois diasporas). The added place names make it obvious that specific groups of believers are in view, yet the absence of an article imparts a qualitative character, "to such as are..." It appears that the terms are used figuratively.

It is unclear whether the first word (eklektois, "elect") is to be taken as a separate noun or as an adjective modifying the following noun. A strictly literal translation of the first possibility would be "to (such as are) elect ones, sojourners of (the) Dispersion," and the second would be "to (such as are) elect sojourners of (the) Dispersion." The first view identifies the readers under two separate and distinct concepts; they are elect and also sojourners. The second view fuses the two thoughts into one two-sided designation of the readers; they are "elect sojourners." The first view makes it possible to separate the two concepts and even to transfer "elect" to v. 2, as is done, for example, in the KJV.

The word eklektos is a verbal adjective, but it may also function as a noun. When used alone with the article, it naturally serves as a noun (Matt. 24:22, 24; 2 Tim. 2:10; etc.). But it can also be a noun without an article (Matt. 22:14; Rom. 8:33; Titus 1:1; etc.). Peter may have intended it as a noun, but the grammatical structure does not suggest it. It is more natural to accept parepidēmois ("sojourners") as the governing noun of the expression, modified by a preceding adjective and a succeeding noun in the genitive. That is in keeping with Peter's use of eklektos as an adjective in 2:6, 9, though in both of those instances the adjective follows the noun. We prefer to accept it as an adjective and to translate "to (such as are) elect sojourners of the Dispersion." So understood, Peter's designation fused heavenward and earthward relationships. That two-sided characterization of the readers underlies the material that follows in the epistle.

The verbal adjective "elect" is passive, marking the readers as the objects of the electing action of God, who is the unnamed agent. They were chosen by God to be His own in order that they might be partakers of the heavenly inheritance being reserved for them (1:4). United by faith with Christ, the "corner stone, elect, precious" (2:6, ASV), they constituted "an elect race" (2:9). As God's elect people, they formed a group separate and distinct from the world and subject to its hatred and persecution. In themselves they were just ordinary people, not superior to their unsaved neighbors; but the initiative of God made them what they were.

The opening characterization of the readers as elect was meant to strengthen and encourage them in their affliction. The doctrine of election is a "family truth" intended to foster the welfare of believers. Unfortunately, that doctrine, which the human mind cannot wholly comprehend, has been the occasion of much controversy among the saints. The sacred writers do not explain all the problems that cluster around the doctrine, nor do they attempt to harmonize it with "that other great truth, taught in Scripture and revealed in conscience—the freedom of the human will; their statements of the two apparently conflicting doctrines balance, but do not explain, one another;... they teach us by their silence that the proper attitude of the Christian, when brought face to face with mystery, is rest in the Lord, humble child-like confidence in his love and wisdom." But in the broader context Peter made it clear that their election served God's purpose, "that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light" (2:9). "Election involves responsibility and accountability."

Peter was also keenly aware of the earthly status of his readers as "strangers in the world." The noun here translated "strangers" (pareptdemois, "sojourners") occurs in the New Testament only in 1 Peter 1:1, 2:11; and Hebrews 11:13. That compound term pictures the readers living as resident aliens beside a people to whom they did not belong. They did not ex-pea to be regarded as natives of the places where they resided. Hebrews 11:13 uses the term of the Old Testament saints, and Peter used it metaphorically to refer to Christians. Called to be God's people, they recognize themselves as temporary residents in the world. They are on their way to a heavenly home, one to which they eagerly expect to be removed by the summons of the Lord. The rendering "strangers" should not be taken to mean that they are not well known by their neighbors; it rather underlines their status as no longer being a native part of their world-scene.

Peter's understanding of the Christian life is beautifully illustrated in the Epistle to Diognetus, an anonymous work dating from the second century.

Christians are not distinguished from the rest of mankind by either country, speech, or customs.... They reside in their respective countries, but only as aliens. They take part in everything as citizens and put up with everything as foreigners. Every foreign land is their home, and every home a foreign land... They find themselves in the flesh, but do not live according to the flesh. They spend their days on earth, but hold citizenship in heaven.

The earthly status of the readers is further described by the added genitive, "of the Dispersion" (diasporas). The term supplements the thought of their alien status. It is a compound noun, made up of the preposition dia, basically meaning "through," and the noun spora, "a sowing." It indicates that Peter's readers were scattered minority groups. "The Dispersion" was a standard Jewish way to refer to Jews living among the Gentiles outside of their Palestinian homeland (cf. John 7:35). In James 1:1 the expression "to the twelve tribes which are of the Dispersion" (ASV) most likely refers to Jewish Christians outside of Palestine. Those who believe that Peter, too, was writing to Jewish Christians understand the term to confirm their position. But the lack of a definite article and the failure to mention the twelve tribes detract from the alleged parallel with James 1:1. It seems more natural to understand Peter's use of the term metaphorically, as a picture of Christians scattered in various areas as minority groups in a non-Christian world. But that designation does not mean that Peter's readers were individual or unorganized local groups; 1 Peter 5 reveals the addressees as members of organized churches.

The use of the terms "sojourners" and "Dispersion" (ASV) describes the earthly status of the readers from two different points of view. The former views them in relation to the land in which they were then living as aliens; the latter portrays them in terms of their true homeland from which they were absent. As God's "elect," the readers were living as "sojourners" in an alien land, dispersed and far removed from their homeland. However, they were assured of their future in-gathering to their heavenly home.

2. Geographical Location of the Readers (v. 1c)

The nouns "Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia" specify the geographical location of the readers and mark 1 Peter as an encyclical letter. How widely the readers were dispersed in each of those regions is not known.

Pontus was the rugged region south of the Black Sea, extending east from Bithynia into the highlands of Armenia. After the overthrow of the kingdom of Mithradates by Pompey in 65 b.c., the area was divided. The western part was united with Bithynia under one administration; the eastern portion continued under the rule of a Greek dynasty. Important Greek cities were located along the shores of the Black Sea, and the Jews in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9) probably came from those coastal cities. We do not know when Christianity was first introduced into the region.

Galatia was formerly a district in central Asia Minor ruled by the Celtic Galatians. But in 25 b.c. the area was made a Roman province and parts of Phrygia, Lyconia, and Pisidia were added to it, so that the province extended considerably farther to the south than the old ethnic Galatia. Acts 2 makes no reference to Galatian Jews. Apparently, none were in Jerusalem on that Day of Pentecost. On his first missionary journey, Paul established churches in the southern part of the Roman province (Acts 13:13-14:23). According to the North Galatian theory, Paul also established churches in the northern part of the province during the second missionary journey (Acts 16:6). But the South Galatian theory, the more generally accepted of the two, rejects the view that Paul conducted a missionary campaign in the northern part of the province. So according to that view, we have no information about how the gospel was brought to that part of the province.

Cappadocia was a mountainous inland area in eastern Asia Minor. In A.D. 17 the Roman Emperor Tiberius incorporated it as a province into the Roman Empire as a bulwark for its eastern borders. Jews from Cappadocia were present in Jerusalem during the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9). But apart from that reference and the one in 1 Peter, the area is not mentioned elsewhere in the New Testament. When and by whom the gospel was first brought to the area is unknown.

Asia, as in all twenty-one occurrences of that term in the New Testament, denotes the Roman province occupying the western regions of Asia Minor. It included the whole western shore of Asia Minor, which was dotted with important Greek cities, and extended east to the borders of Galatia. It was constituted a Roman province in 133 b.c, and in New Testament times the area was strongly pro-Roman. It was the most developed and prosperous region of Asia Minor. Jewish representatives from Asia were in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9), and certain Jews from Asia later caused Paul's arrest in that city (Acts 21:27-30). The province was effectively evangelized during Paul's ministry at Ephesus on his third missionary journey (Acts 19:10). The church at Ephesus was the mother church of the area and played a prominent part in early church history.

Bithynia lay along the southern shore of the Black Sea west of Pontus. In 74 b.c. the last king of Bithynia bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans; in 64 b.c. Pompey united it with the western portion of Pontus as a single province. Bithynia is not mentioned in Acts 2:9-10. According to Acts 16:7 Paul, on his second missionary journey, for some unstated reason was divinely restrained from working in Bithynia. We do not know when Christianity first entered the province. The well-known letter of the imperial legate Pliny the Younger to the Roman Emperor Trajan in A.D. 112 indicates that Christianity had already been entrenched in the area for many years, with the result that the pagan temples were almost deserted.

If, as seems probable, Peter intended those five names to denote Roman provinces, then the area included all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains. Bennett observes, "In New Testament times there was no general name in use corresponding to Asia Minor; hence this list is the natural way of describing that area." The existence of Christian churches in those provinces bears witness to much unrecorded missionary work during the first thirty years of the Christian church.

The order of the five names used by Peter has evoked considerable discussion. The most probable suggestion is that the order indicates the anticipated route of travel by the bearer of the letter. But if so, the exact route taken must have been determined by some considerations no longer available to us. We have no information concerning the number of churches or their distribution in those areas.

3. Spiritual Supports for the Readers (v. 2a)

The three prepositional phrases in v. 2 are best understood to refer directly to the readers for the purpose of giving them spiritual support. The phrases emphasize the fact that as "elect sojourners of the Dispersion" (cf. v. 1b) they have a special relationship to God. Peter undergirded their faith by portraying the entire Godhead as active in their Christian experience. Peter's primary purpose was not to teach Christian doctrine but to strengthen Christian faith.

The precise connection of those three phrases has been understood in different ways. Many translations and commentaries directly unite the phrases with the term "elect." Doctrinal considerations may be found to support that connection, but it is not obvious from Peter's word order. If that was the intended connection, then "elect" should properly stand after "Bithynia." But since seven nouns intervene, that understanding is improbable.

Even more improbable is the view that relates those three phrases with "apostle," as suggested by some ancient commentators and supported by Cook. An even larger amount of material intervenes between "apostle" and those phrases. Nor is it likely that Peter would have returned to a defense of his apostleship after identifying his readers (cf. Gal. 1:1-2). Cook found support for his position in the resemblance of the passage with the opening of Romans, but Bigg felt that it was unjustified to seek such support from "the supposed analogy of the Pauline addresses."

More probable is the view that those three phrases modify all of v. 1 and refer both to Peter and his readers. Nevertheless, it seems most natural to take the phrases as part of the entire dative construction that identifies the readers. The three phrases are not merely a closer definition of their election but relate to their total position as "elect sojourners of the Dispersion." The phrases clearly relate to the Godward aspect of their character, but certainly the outworking of that fact should find application to their earthly status. "It is because they are 'chosen' by God that they are now exiles of the dispersion in the world."

"According to the foreknowledge of God the Father" correlates their status as elect sojourners of the Dispersion with God's foreknowledge. "According to" (kata and the accusative) indicates a standard or norm; their circumstances as elect sojourners were in full accord with the divine foreknowledge (prognōsin). The noun foreknowledge occurs twice (Acts 2:23; 1 Pet. 1:2) and the verb five times (Acts 26:5; Rom. 8:29; 11:2; 1 Pet. 1:20; 2 Pet. 3:17) in the New Testament. "In Acts 26:5 and II Peter 3:17 we have the purely classical meaning of the verb, namely, 'previous knowledge.'" But in the remainder of its New Testament occurrences, it "is to be understood less as a passive 'knowing in advance' than an active 'taking note of,' an eternal intention to bless." Divine foreknowledge involves God's favorable regard for people as part of His deliberate plans and purposes. His affectionate regard for them is not due to what they are in themselves but can only be understood as the manifestation of His gracious character as "God the Father." This double designation declares His infinite power to realize His beneficent purposes, and His character as Father assures them of His loving concern for their well-being amid trying circumstances. "Peter sets aside all doubts and misgivings, and opens new interpretive horizons for those who have become bogged down in the pressures of the moment. God knows about everything; indeed, He had always known. There are no surprises in all of this; it is a part of His purposes."

"By the sanctifying work of the Spirit" indicates the means used to further the Father's loving purposes. The -mos ending of the noun rendered "sanctifying activity" (hagiasmos) expresses the progressive activity of sanctification rather that the resultant state of holiness (hagiōsunē). There is a moral dimension in the term; it includes the idea of consecration as well as cleansing. But the first concept is more prominent here. The word refers to the Spirit's work of setting Christians apart from the world as God's chosen people by keeping them conscious of their distinctiveness and so making them more and more inwardly holy.

The genitive "of the Spirit" (pneumatos) may be interpreted two ways. It may be an objective genitive, making the human spirit the object of the sanctifying work. That seems to be the intended meaning of the Montgomery translation, "in the sanctification of the spirit." More probably the genitive is subjective, meaning that the Spirit is the agent of the sanctifying. The context favors the latter view in that it preserves the trinitarian reference. Cook suggested that the ambiguity of the expression may be intentional; it "may represent the certain truth that sanctification is the result of a complex work wrought by the Spirit on the consenting will." If the genitive is objective, sanctification of the human spirit is portrayed as the work of the Holy Spirit; if it is subjective, that theological point is not made.

The third phrase, "for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood," expresses the intended outcome of the work of God with His people. The nouns, "obedience" and "sprinkling," connected by a simple conjunction, indicate a blending of human and divine activity in achieving the intended result.

Interpreters disagree on whether both "obedience" and "sprinkling" are modified by the genitive "of Jesus Christ." The NIV's "for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood" has "Jesus Christ" modifying both "obedience" and "sprinkling." That is possible, but it involves the difficulty of simultaneously giving the genitive "of Jesus Christ" an objective meaning with the first noun ("obedience to Jesus Christ") and a subjective meaning with "blood" ("by his blood"). Any effort to avoid the difficulty by severing the two nouns, connecting "for obedience" closely with the preceding phrase—"in sanctification of the Spirit for obedience"—destroys the structural sequence of the three prepositional phrases. William Kelly connected the genitive "of Jesus Christ" (understood subjectively) with both nouns—"to obey as Christ obeyed and to be sprinkled with His precious blood." But such an introduction of the personal example of Jesus is not obvious. It seems better, therefore, to accept "obedience" as standing alone, as also in v. 14. It is a plain reference to the human side in salvation. Read, "for obedience, and sprinkling of the blood."

As a compound noun, "obedience" (hupakoēn) conveys the picture of the listening and submitting to that which is heard. It involves a change of attitude in the believer, reversing the characteristic unsaved attitude of rebellion and self-will. Grudem stresses that "obedience" here does not mean "initial (saving) obedience to the gospel" but rather refers "to the daily obedience of believers (1:14 and probably 1:22), as also in Rom 5:19; 6:16; 2 Cor 7:15; 10:5-6; Phm 21 and Heb 5:8." But even the most mature believer realizes that his obedience is incomplete in actual practice. But as Rees remarks, "The sign and proof of being among the 'elect' is not an empty prating of how secure we are once we have believed, but rather how sensitive we are to the principle and practice of obedience to the Saviour we have trusted."

If the term is used absolutely, then Peter does not indicate to what or to whom our obedience is given. But the primary idea seems to be "obedience to the truth," the saving truth of the gospel as Peter defines it in 1:22 (cf. "the obedience of faith" in Rom. 1:5; 15:18; 16:26). "Obedience is the first act, as well as the permanent characteristic of true faith."

"And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ" (Greek) closely links the human response with the divine provision. The double statement about obedience and sprinkling of the blood is apparently derived from the scene in Exodus 24:3-8. At Mt. Sinai, after the Israelites heard God's word to them through Moses and said, "Everything the Lord has said we will do" (v. 3), Moses sprinkled the altar and the people with blood, thereby bringing them into and sealing the covenant between them and God. The reference here is not merely to the commencement of that covenant relationship but rather to their resultant conduct as the covenant people of God.

The New Covenant into which Peter's readers had been brought was sealed by the blood of Jesus Christ, the Mediator of a better covenant (Heb. 8:6; also 12:24). They were sprinkled by His blood and were the recipients of its blessings (Heb. 9:11-15). The reference to the sprinkled blood is figurative. It "necessarily carries a reference to the death of Jesus, but the emphasis lies not on the violent nature of his death but on its redemptive nature (cf. Heb. 9:22)." Huther noted that by the mention of the blood of Jesus Christ the readers were "here for the first time characterized directly as Christians, all the previous designations having been equally applicable to the children of Israel."

"Unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ" seems primarily to refer to the believer's admission into the New Covenant, though the efficacy of His blood certainly extends to their entire subsequent life as Christians. They should constantly be eager to obey the revealed will of God and continually avail themselves of the bloods cleansing power (1 John 1:7). According to Stibbs, that extension of the picture is suggested by the order of the two nouns in the phrase. He says, "Our calling is to obey; but when we fail the atoning blood can still be sprinkled." Grudem indeed suggests that the purification ceremony for a healed leper (Lev. 14:6-7) may provide a more appropriate picture of the "cleansing from any defilement that would disrupt fellowship with God and his people." It is a reminder of the divine provision for cleansing whenever any sin may defile the believer's life (1 John 1:9).

C. The Greeting (v. 2b)

Peter's greeting is a prayerful request for his readers to experience the distinctive Christian blessings of grace and peace. The greeting embodies the characteristic content of the New Testament epistolary greetings. The formula "grace and peace" soon displaced the colorless chairein ("to rejoice, greetings"), the commonly employed greeting (Acts 15:23; 23:26; James 1:1; cf. 2 John 10-11). Robert Young literally renders Peter's greeting: "Grace to you and peace be multiplied!"

"Grace and peace" aptly summarize the basic Christian message. Grace is the free and unmerited favor of God bestowed upon guilty man in and through Jesus Christ. Always named first in such epistolary greetings, it bears witness to man's need, for "a being morally endowed who has never sinned, needs no grace." It involves God's provision for the believer's sinful past and includes enabling grace for daily Christian living. Peace is the result of receiving the grace of God; it denotes the state of well-being that flows from the experience of being reconciled and forgiven.

"To you," placed between "grace" and "peace," emphasizes Peter's concern for his readers in their difficult situation. Thus, he indicated his desire that a growing experience of those gifts would be a vital, personal reality for them.

"Be multiplied" (plēthuntheiē) is the optative of wish, "may be multiplied, may it be conferred abundantly on you." The verb is singular. Unless the singular is simply regarded as part of a set formula, it may imply that grace and peace are aspects of one experience. Though the passive voice does not specify the giver of those gifts, they must come from without. The prayer for their multiplication implies that the readers were already recipients of God's grace and peace. "They that have tasted the sweetness of this grace and peace, call incessantly for more." The effective impartation of grace and peace will assure the completion of God's purposes with them. Hart suggested that the multiplication of grace and peace is needed "to match the growth of hostility with which the Christians addressed are confronted."

Such a verb in the opening greeting occurs only in the Petrine epistles and in Jude. Masterman thought that Peter's use of the verb was "probably a reminiscence of the old high-priestly benediction of Numb. vi. 24-26." But it is more likely that Peter, like the rabbis before him, drew the verb directly from the Septuagint translation of Daniel 4:1 (3:31, LXX) and 6:25.