Aaron

Chronological Summary

  1. His service
    1. For Moses
      1. Aaron was a spokesman for Moses in Egypt.
        1. He was officially appointed by God (Exod. 4:16).
        2. At the time of his calling he was 83 (Exod. 7:6-7).
        3. He accompanied Moses to Egypt (Exod. 4:27-28).
        4. He met with the enslaved Israelites (Exod. 4:29).
        5. He met with Pharaoh (Exod. 5:1).
        6. He was criticized by the Israelites, who accused him of giving them a killing work burden (Exod. 5:20-21).
        7. He cast down his staff in front of Pharaoh, and it became a serpent (Exod. 7:10).
        8. He saw his serpent swallow up the serpents produced by Pharaoh's magicians (Exod. 7:12).
        9. He raised up his staff and struck the Nile, causing it to be turned into blood (Exod. 7:20).
        10. He raised his staff over the waters, bringing in the plague of frogs (Exod. 8:6).
        11. He raised his staff and struck the dust of the ground, introducing the plague of gnats (Exod. 8:17).
      2. Aaron was Moses' supporter at Rephidim. He and Hur helped lift up Moses' hands in prayer during Joshua's battle with the Amalekites (Exod. 17:12).
      3. Aaron was a spectator with Moses on Mt. Sinai.
        1. He accompanied Moses to the base of Sinai (Exod. 19:24; 24:1).
        2. He saw God's glory on Sinai (Exod. 24:9-11).
    2. For God
      1. Aaron's appointment
        1. He was formally ordained as Israel's first high priest (Lev. 8:1-36).
        2. He was washed with water, dressed in the garb of the high priest, anointed with oil, and sprinkled with animal blood (Exod. 29:1-21; 40:12-13).
        3. He began his high priestly ministry (Lev. 9).
      2. Aaron's assignments
        1. He was commanded to pray for Israel (Exod. 28:9-38).
        2. He was appointed to supervise the tabernacle (Num. 18:5-9).
        3. He was to burn incense on the altar every morning and evening and to tend the lamps (Exod. 30:7-8).
        4. He was to make an annual atonement for Israel (Exod. 30:10).
        5. He was given the rules for offering a bull on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:11-14, 18-19, 27-28).
        6. He was given the rules for selecting the scapegoat for that day (Lev. 16:8-9, 15, 18-19, 27-28).
        7. He was given orders concerning the burnt, grain, sin, guilt, trespass, and peace offerings (Lev. 6:9-30; 7:1-27).
        8. He determined who was a leper (Lev. 13:1-45).
        9. His tribe was to have no land inheritance in Canaan. Instead, they were to receive tithes from all the other tribes (Num. 18:30-31).
        10. With Moses, he was in charge of the census taken at Mt. Sinai (Num. 1:1-19).
  2. His sins
    1. Against the people of God—constructing an idol
      1. He gave in to the pressure of the Israelite crowd and constructed a golden calf for them while Moses was on Mt. Sinai (Exod. 32:1-5).
      2. He lied to Moses with a pitiful excuse for doing this (Exod. 32:22-24).
      3. He was saved from death at God's hand by Moses' prayer (Deut. 9:20).
    2. Against the prophet of God—criticizing his brother
      1. The cause for this criticism—Both he and his sister, Miriam, criticized Moses over two matters (Num. 12:1-2).
        1. Moses' wife (12:1)
        2. Moses' leadership (12:2)
      2. The consequences of this criticism (Num. 12:4-15)
        1. Both Aaron and Miriam were rebuked by God for this (12:5-8).
        2. Miriam (the ringleader) was punished with a divine plague of leprosy (12:10).
        3. Aaron confessed his sin and begged Moses to ask God to heal her. This was done and Miriam was healed (12:11-15).
  3. His sorrow
    1. Aaron's two dead sons—These men, Nadab and Abihu, were killed by God for offering strange fire upon the altar. Aaron was commanded by God not to mourn over the deaths of these young apostates (Lev. 10:1-7).
    2. Aaron's two remaining sons—After a misunderstanding, Aaron justified the actions of Eleazar and Ithamar before Moses (Lev. 10:16-20).
  4. His staff
    1. Aaron's rightful office as high priest was defended by Moses during Korah's rebellion (Num. 16:9-11).
    2. Aaron's rightful office as high priest was demonstrated by God after Korah's rebellion by the supernatural blossoming of his wooden staff (Num. 17:1-9).
  5. His successor
    1. Aaron had his leadership taken from him and given to Eleazar his son on Mt. Hor (Num. 20:23-28).
    2. Unbelief and rebellion prevented him from entering Canaan (Num. 20:12, 24).
    3. He died (and was buried) on Mt. Hor (Num. 20:27-28).
    4. Israel mourned for him 30 days (Num. 20:29).
    5. He was 123 at the time of his death (Num. 33:39).

Theological Summary

  1. His name was mentioned in a special spiritual contract signed by those who loved God in the days of Nehemiah (Neh. 10:38).
  2. His name is referred to several times in Psalms.
    1. How God used Aaron and Moses to lead Israel
    2. How God heard their prayers (99:6)
    3. How God worked miracles through them (105:26-27)
    4. How Israel rebelled against them (106:16)
    5. How God loves unity among his people, comparing it to the precious oil poured on Aaron's head which ran down on his beard and robe (133:2)
  3. Micah the prophet mentioned Aaron when reminding Israel of God's faithfulness in the past (Mic. 6:4).
  4. Stephen referred to Aaron during his address before the Sanhedrin just prior to his martyrdom (Acts 7:40).
  5. He is mentioned in Hebrews.
    1. His priesthood is compared with that of Christ (5:4-5).
    2. His priesthood is compared with that of Melchizedek (7:11).

Statistics

Abednego

Chronological Summary

  1. Abednego and the king's food (Dan. 1:1-20)
    1. His resolve
      1. He was one of four named Jewish youths among those taken from Judah to Babylon by King Nebuchadnezzar in 606 b.c. (Dan. 1:1-7).
      2. He was also called Azariah (Dan. 1:7). The names of his three friends were:
        1. Daniel, also called Belteshazzar (1:7)
        2. Hananiah, also called Shadrach (1:7)
        3. Mishael, also called Meshach (1:7)
      3. Abednego determined along with his three friends not to defile his body with the king's food and wine. He participated in Daniel's request for a special, simple diet (Dan. 1:8-14).
    2. His reward
      1. God honored Abednego's decision and gave him great ability to master all the literature and science he was taught in Nebuchadnezzar's school (Dan. 1:17).
      2. Upon completion of his three-year training program, Abednego was found by the king to possess 10 times the knowledge and wisdom of those who had remained on the royal diet (Dan. 1:18-20).
  2. Abednego and the king's frustration (Dan. 2:1-19)
    1. Nebuchadnezzar had dreamed a dream which he could not understand (2:1-3).
    2. Nebuchadnezzar threatened to kill all the wise men if they could not tell him both his dream and its interpretation (2:5).
    3. Abednego joined Daniel and his friends in asking God to reveal the content and meaning of Nebuchadnezzar's dream (2:17-19).
    4. God answered their request that very night (2:19).
    5. Abednego, with Shadrach and Meshach, was promoted in the kingdom at Daniel's request (2:49).
  3. Abednego and the king's furnace (Dan. 3:1-30)
    1. His resolve
      1. Abednego, along with Shadrach and Meshach, refused to bow down and worship a golden pagan statue Nebuchadnezzar had built (3:12).
      2. After rejecting the king's final offer (he had given them a second chance), the three Hebrew youths were bound and cast into a fiery furnace (3:15-21).
    2. His reward
      1. Christ himself joined his three faithful servants in the fire, protecting them from all harm (3:24-25).
      2. The three men stepped from the fire without even the smell of smoke upon them (3:26-27).
      3. Abednego received another promotion from Nebuchadnezzar and prospered greatly (3:30).

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Abel

Chronological Summary

  1. Offering a sacrifice to God
    1. He presented to God the firstlings of his flock (Gen. 4:4).
    2. His offering was accepted by God (Gen. 4:4).
  2. Becoming a sacrifice for God—Abel was killed by his jealous brother Cain, whose grain offering had not been accepted by God (Gen. 4:5-8).

Theological Summary

  1. Christ referred to Abel's martyrdom when condemning the wicked Pharisees (Matt. 23:35).
  2. Hebrews refers to the faith Abel demonstrated when he brought the right sacrifice to God, which serves as an object lesson for us today (Heb. 11:4).
  3. Hebrews contrasts the blood of Christ with the blood of Abel (Heb. 12:24).
    1. Abel's blood cried out for vengeance (Gen. 4:10).
    2. Christ's blood cries out for forgiveness (Matt. 26:28).
  4. John wrote that Satan prompted Cain to kill Abel out of envy (1 John 3:12).

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