Expository Dictionary



Old Testament

Verb: ‏עָזַב‎ (ʿāzab), GK 6440 (S 5800), 214x. ʿāzab is used most often for the action of “abandonment” and can refer to the abandonment of land because of exile (Lev. 26:43; Isa. 18:6; 32:14; cf. Isa. 60:15; Jer. 49:25; Ezek. 36:4). It can also mean setting a person, particularly a prisoner, free from captivity (2 Chr. 28:14; Ps. 10:14; 16:10). Sometimes it refers simply to a person leaving behind his cloak (Gen. 39:15), his family, flocks, or herds (Gen. 50:8).

God as the subject of this verb abandons the apostate nation (Jer. 12:7), the king (2 Chr. 32:31), Zion (Isa. 60:15), or (allegedly) the psalmist (Ps. 71:11). But more common is the negation of the verb with respect to God, indicating that he will not forsake or abandon his people (Gen. 28:15; Deut. 31:6, 8), despite the fact that his people have frequently abandoned the Lord (Jdg. 2:12-13; 1 Ki. 19:10; 2 Ki. 21:22), his covenant (Jer. 22:9), the law (2 Chr. 12:1), and statutes (1 Ki. 18:18).

This verb is used over 100x in the OT to denote an act of breaking a covenant with God (Deut. 29:25; Jer. 2:13, 17, 19; 22:9; Dan. 11:30). When covenant curses are unleashed by God, he abandons his people (Isa. 54:7-8), yet his abandonment is temporary.

New Testament

Verb: ἀφίστημι (aphistēmi), GK 923 (S 868), 14x. aphistēmi generally means to “leave, depart” in a physical sense. It can also express various forms of apostasy, such as Paul’s teaching that in later times “some will abandon the faith” (1 Tim. 4:1; cf. Heb. 3:12). See leave.

Verb: ἐγκαταλειπω (enkataleipō), GK 1593 (S 1459), 10x. This verb means to separate connection with someone or something by leaving, to “forsake, abandon, desert.” See forsake.


See humble.


New Testament

Noun: ἀββά (abba), GK 5 (S 5), 3x. abba is an Aramaic word that means “father”; it is a term of endearment used within the family circle (not unlike our word “dad”); its degree of familiarity toward God was unknown in Judaism. Jesus uses this term in reference to his heavenly Father in his prayer in Gethsemane (Mk. 14:36). Paul uses this term twice in his letters, both times with reference to what the Spirit inspires us do when we become believers in Jesus and so become children of God: we begin to cry out to God as “Abba, Father” (Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6).*


Old Testament

Noun: ‏בֶּטֶן‎ (beṭen), GK 1061 (S 990), 72x. The basic sense of beṭen seems to be the hollow or inside of something. It is used in several ways in the OT, referring to the belly or abdomen, the reproductive organs (of men or women), and the womb. See womb.


Old Testament

Verb: ‏שָׂנֵא‎ (śānēʾ), GK 8533 (S 8130), 148x. Usually translated “to hate,” śānēʾ refers to varying levels of dislike toward someone or something. See hate. This abhorrence can be toward another man or woman. For example, Jacob has an aversion for his wife Leah (Gen. 29:31).


New Testament

Verb: μένω (menō), GK 3531 (S 3306), 118x. The basic sense of menō is “to remain, stay, abide.” See remain.