Ἀαρών <G2> G2 Aarōn Aaron*
Elder brother of Moses (cf. Exod 4:14; 7:7; 28:1): Luke 1:5; Acts 7:40; Heb 5:4; 7:11; 9:4. K. G. Kuhn, TDNT I, 3f.; H. Junker, LTK I, 3f.; TRE 1, 1-7.
Ἀβαδδών <G3> G3 Abaddōn Abaddon*
The name, meaning "destruction" (?), of the angel ruling over the abyss: Rev 9:11. J. Jeremias, TDNT I, 4.→ ἄβυσσος 2, ἄγγελος 2.
ἀβαρής <G4> G4, 2 abarēs not burdensome*
2 Cor 11:9; cf. 12:16; 1 Thess 2:9.
ἀββά <G5> G5 abba Father (vocative)*
1. In Aramaic—2. Occurrences in early Christian literature—3. Ἀββά in Paul—4. Ἀββά in the sayings of Jesus
Lit.: Conzelmann, Theology, 103f.—G. Dalman, Grammatik des jüdisch-palästinischen Aramäisch (21905; repr. 1960) §§14:7d, f; 36:1γ; 40:4.—Dalman, Worte, 150-59, 296-304.—E. Haenchen, Der Weg Jesu (1968) 59, 492-94.—O. Hofius, DNTT I, 614f.—J. Jeremias, "Abba," idem, The Prayers of Jesus (SBT2/6, 1967) 11-65.—Jeremias. Theology, 61-68.—G. Kittel, TDNT I, 5f.—W. Marchel, Abba, Père! La prière du Christ et des chrétiens (1963); condensed edition, Abba, Vater! Die Vaterbotschaft des NT (1963).—S. V. McCasland, "Abba, Father," JBL 72 (1953) 79-91.—G. Schrenk. TDNT V, 974-1014, esp. 984f., 1006.—T. M. Taylor. "'Abba, Father' and Baptism," SJT 11 (1958) 62-71.
1. ʾAbbāʾ in Aramaic was originally a nursery word, part of the speech of children (not the determinative form of the noun "father"), with the meaning "Daddy." In NT times it was no longer limited to the speech of small children, but was used also by grown children and was even used as a form of address for old men. Even in Hebrew texts ʿabbāʾ replaced "my father" and, similarly, could mean "his father" and "our father." It could also replace the determinative form.
2. In early Christian literature (as given by the list in BAGD xxix) ἀββά occurs only twice in Paul (Gal 4:6; Rom 8:15) and once in Mark (14:36) and is always addressed to God. In all three cases it is followed by the same translation: ὁ πατήρ (instead of the expected vocative πάτερ; cf. BDF §147.3). The direct address to God, "Father" (without preceding ἀββά), occurs elsewhere in the NT only in the words of Jesus in the Gospels (19 or 20 times): in the secondary form of the Gethsemane story, Matt 26:39, 42 par. Luke 22:42; in the Lord's Prayer, Luke 11:2 par. Matt 6:9; twice in Jesus' cry of rejoicing, Luke 10:21 par. Matt 11:25f.; in the expansion of the account of Jesus' death, Luke 23:46; in what might be a later addition to the ms. tradition, Luke 23:34; and in John 11:41; 12:27f.; 17:1, 5, 11, 21, 24f.;cf. 1 Pet 1:17.
ʿAbbāʾ is not found in direct address to God in ancient Judaism, although the collective address "our Father" is found in two Jewish prayers (KIT 58, pp. 6, 28f.) from around the time of the NT (through the influence of the pagan world, πάτερ as an address in prayer is also found occasionally in Diaspora Judaism, e.g., Wis 14:3), and in Palestinian Judaism, apart from a direct address in prayer, one could occasionally even speak of God as "my father" (as early as Sir 51:10). A fundamental difference from Jewish usage cannot be demonstrated (contra esp. Jeremias, e.g., Theology, 63-67).
3. In Gal 4:6 and Rom 8:15 the believers "cry" (κράζειν in the sense of the ecstatic cry in the congregational meeting) to God because they are "children of God" and have received "the spirit of his son" or "a spirit of sonship." In Galatians it is the divine spirit in the human heart that "cries" ἀββά, in Romans it is the believers who "cry" it "in" the divine spirit.
4. In the mouth of Jesus ἀββά occurs literally only in the oldest form of the prayer in Gethsemane (Mark 14:36), as an expression of a childlike trust in God and of the obligation to obedience (both aspects are characteristic of the designation of God as "father" in ancient Judaism; cf., e.g., 3 Macc 6:3, 8; 1QH 9:35f. or Wis 11:10; Sipra Lev. on 20:26). An Aramaic original, with corresponding ʾabbāʾ, should probably be assumed for the Lord's Prayer and perhaps the cry of rejoicing (→ 2). The prayer in Gethsemane and the (Wisdom-christological) cry of rejoicing are, however, early Christian formulations, so that the Lord's Prayer, a prayer for disciples, remains as the only text likely to be authentic (if the Lukan πάτερ—as probable—is authentic, or the Matthean πάτερ ἡμῶν goes back to a simple ʿabbāʾ).
Ἅβελ <G6> G6 Habel Abel*
Younger brother of Cain (Gen 4:1-16): Matt 23:35; Luke 11:51; Heb 11:4; 12:24. DB I, 28-30; K. G. Kuhn, TDNT I, 6-8; C. Westermann, Genesis 1-11 (1984) 279-320 (bibliography).
Ἀβιά <G7> G7 Abia Abijah*
Personal name (cf. 2 Chr 13:1-14:1): Matt 1:7b, c; Luke 1:5.
Ἀβιαθάρ <G8> G8 Abiathar Abiathar*
Priest under David and Solomon (2 Sam 20:25; 1 Kgs 2:26f.): Mark 2:26.
Ἀβιληνή, ῆς <G9> G9 Abilene Abilene*
Territory controlled by the city of Abila (northwest of Damascus): Luke 3:1. Schürer, History I, 567-69; R. Savignac, RB 21 (1912) 533-40. → Λυσανίας.
Ἀβιούδ <G10> G10 Abioud Abiud*
Personal name (1 Chr 8:3): Matt 1:13a, b.
Ἀβραάμ <G11> G11 Abraam Abraham*
1. Abraham in the OT and early Judaism—2. In the NT—a) Gospels and Acts—b) Epistles
Lit.: M. A. Beek, et al., BHH I, 15-17.—K. Berger, "Abraham in den paulinischen Hauptbriefen," MTZ 17 (1966) 47-89.—Billerbeck III, 186-201; IV, 1213 (index s.v. Abraham).—R. E. Clements, TDOT 1, 52-58.—N. A. Dahl. "The Story of Abraham in Luke-Acts," Studies in Luke-Acts (ed. L. Keck and J. L. Martyn; 1968) 139-58.— Encyclopedia Miqra'îth I (1965) 61-67.—J. Jeremias, TDNT I, 8-10.—E. Käsemann, Perspectives on Paul (1971) 79-101.—T. Klauser. RAC I, 18-27.—H. E. Lona, Abraham in Johannes 8 (1976).—R. Martin-Achard, K. Berger, et al., TRE I, 364-87.—G. Mayer, "Aspekte des Abrahambildes in der hellenistisch-jüdischen Literatur," EvT 32 (1972) 118-227.—L. Pirot, DBSup I, 8-28.—O. Schilling, SacVb I, 3-6.—O. Schmitz, "Abraham im Spät-judentum und im Urchristentum," in Aus Schrift und Geschichte (FS Adolf Schlatter, 1922) 99-123.
1. The name ʾabrām is probably a northern Semitic form meaning "(my) father (God?) is exalted"; from Gen 17:5 on the expanded form ʾabrāhām, which is interpreted as "father of many nations," is used. In the narratives of Gen 11:26-25:9 Abraham is presented as one who is called by God, receives the promise of numerous descendants (12:3; 13:16; 15:5; 17:4f.; 22:17f.) and possession of the land (12:7; 13:14f.; 17:8; 24:7), is found worthy of a covenant with God (15:18; 17:7-14), and preserves his election through believing obedience (12:4; 15:6; 22:3-19). He is called "friend of God" (Isa 41:8; 2 Chr 20:7), and Israel is regarded as the "offspring of Abraham" (Isa 41:8; Ps 105:6).
In early Judaism the faith of Abraham is stressed (1 Macc 2:52; Philo Abr. 268-276; Her. 90-95) and his faithfulness elaborated in haggadic style. In Sir 44:19-21 it is more precisely described as faithfulness to the law; in Jubilees Abraham is a determined opponent of idolatry and the one who restores the Hebrew language and tradition (Jub. 11-12; 20-22). He withstood ten temptations (19:8) and through prayer and laying on of hands cured Pharaoh of leprosy (1QapGen 20:16-29); he was rescued from the furnace (Gen. Rab. 44:13; Bib. Ant. 6:15-18). The results of the blessing originating in Abraham are extensive: Israel's deliverance at the Sea of Reeds is due to the faith of Abraham or his willingness to sacrifice Isaac (Mek. Exod. on 14:15); descent from Abraham guarantees a place in the eternal kingdom (Justin Dial. 140). On the basis of the binding of Isaac, Abraham appears as intercessor for Israel (y. Taʿan. 2:65d). On the other hand, 1QS 2:9 argues against the efficacy of the merits of "the fathers" for an Israelite under a curse.
The Hellenistic Jewish Apoc. Abr. (1st cent. a.d.?) describes Abraham as a monotheist and recipient of revelations of the future; the contemporary T. Abr. describes the announcement of his death and his ascension to heaven.
2. In the NT Abraham's significance in salvation history for Israel is acknowledged, but any automatic effect of Abrahamic descent is placed in question.
a) John the Baptist criticized the reliance on physical descent from Abraham as a guarantee of salvation and expounded the possibility of a spiritual descent from Abraham (Matt 3:9; Luke 3:8). Jesus saw in God's self-revelation as the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Exod 3:6) the Torah pointing to the resurrection of the dead (Mark 12:26; Matt 22:32; Luke 20:37): Abraham must be alive if the living God (cf. Exod 3:14) refers to him. In the parable of Luke 16:19-31 Abraham is alive and constitutes a place of bliss for the soul of Lazarus (v. 22); he can also be addressed by the soul of the rich man and remain for him, too, "Father Abraham" (vv. 23f., 27, 30). For the rich man, however, the blessing is exhausted in the material possessions of earthly life (v. 25); the enduring efficacy of the blessing is guaranteed by obedience to the law and the prophets, of which Abraham quite naturally appears as the advocate (vv. 29, 31). According to Matt 8:11; Luke 13:28f., the blessing of Abraham had universal significance; together with Isaac and Jacob, Abraham constitutes the goal of the eschatological pilgrimage of the nations so that in his table fellowship at the heavenly banquet Gentiles are included as well. According to Luke, Israel's descent from Abraham signifies a special obligation for Jesus the Savior: A "daughter of Abraham" may not be enslaved by the devil (13:16; cf. John 8:33-40), and even a tax collector remains Abraham's son and a candidate for salvation (Luke 19:9).
In Matthew the genealogy of Jesus begins with Abraham (1:2) and proceeds from him to David in fourteen generations (1:17): as Israel's Messiah, Jesus is the Son not only of David but of Abraham as well (1:1; cf. 1:21). Luke mentions Abraham only as one member in the genealogy of Jesus, which reaches back to Adam (Luke 3:34), but he is the most prominent representative of the three patriarchs whom God acknowledges (Acts 3:13; 7:32). Israel is Abraham's family (13:26); the covenant and blessing of Abraham are fulfilled in the appearance of the Christ (3:25). Stephen's speech (7:2-8, 16f.) recalls the high points of Abraham's history as well as the announcement of Israel's enslavement made to Abraham (7:6f.; cf. Gen 15:13f.); at the beginning stands the circumcision of Abraham (Acts 7:8), at the conclusion the uncircumcised heart of Israel (v. 51).
In John 8 the difference between the physical descendants ("seed of Abraham," vv. 33, 37; cf. v. 39) and those who believe in Christ is emphasized. The latter prove they are the authentic children of the patriarch by behaving as he did; the freedom they enjoy is interpreted as freedom from the power of sin and death (vv. 33, 39f.). Abraham is regarded as the visionary witness of this freedom of the Messiah, who was before him and ranks above him (vv. 52-58).
b) Paul, with the phrase "seed of Abraham," expresses both the historical advantage of Israel and his own origins (2 Cor 11:22; Rom 9:7; 11:1). But he disputes the equation of the "seed of Abraham" with genuine, eschatological sonship. The latter is applicable only to the children of the promise (Rom 9:7-9), i.e., those who believe, as the example of Isaac over against Ishmael makes clear. For Paul, Abraham's faith in the creative word of promise is of primary importance.
In Romans 4 Paul uses Gen 15:6 to show that, as in the case of Abraham, the prototype of the believer, not only Jews but Gentiles as well can attain to the salvation that comes through justification sola fide. In contrast to Jewish tradition, Paul sets Abraham apart from the law, relativizes the value of the circumcision that he underwent, and makes clear the temporal and material priority of the promise and faith: even before his circumcision and before the time of the law (cf. Rom. 4:13f.) Abraham was justified by virtue of faith through the promise given by grace (vv. 13-15), and in connection with circumcision received the pledge of the divine covenant and the new name "Abraham," which honors him as "father of many nations," i.e., as the father of all believers (vv. 10-12, 17); both Jews and Gentiles are his seed (vv. 16f.). Accordingly, Paul sees in the circumcision of Abraham not the "sign of the covenant" (as in Gen 17:10f.), but rather the "seal of justification" based on the faith that Abraham had demonstrated before circumcision (Rom 4:11f.). Abraham's fatherhood also is redefined: the physical forefather of the Jews (v. 1) is a "father of the circumcised" in the sense of a circumcision of the heart, which consists in the imitation of his faith; also the promise of inheriting the earth (v. 13) is to be understood in a spiritual sense. The faith of Abraham takes on a fundamental character and an eschatological significance: contrary to all human hope, he grasped the promise of numerous descendants and thus honored the creative word of the one who brings the dead to life and calls into being the things that do not exist (vv. 17-21); so also faith in Christ honors the God who made of the crucified one the risen Lord (vv. 24f.) and, through the forgiveness thus made possible, wills to justify the ungodly (v. 5).
In Galatians 3 Paul contrasts the blessing originating in Abraham (vv. 6-9) with the curse under which the unsuccessful obedience to the law stands (vv. 10-13). The blessing of Abraham for the nations is understood as a proto-gospel of the justification of the Gentiles (vv. 8f.); only those who believe in Christ are descendants of Abraham and heirs of the promise (v. 29). Since the blessing of Abraham is eschatologically instituted as the salvation accomplished by the one who was hanged on a tree (vv. 13f.), Paul can also apply the expression "seed of Abraham" specifically to Christ (v. 16), especially since the eternal validity of the covenant (Gen 17:7) is guaranteed only by the eternally reigning Messiah (2 Sam 7:12-14; cf. Rom 1:3f.). In Gal 4:22 Abraham is mentioned as the husband of Hagar and Sarah, who symbolize respectively Sinai and the Jerusalem above. Rom 8:32 calls to mind Gen 22:16: God's giving of the Son is brought into relation to Abraham's offering of Isaac.
In Hebrews Abraham embodies the ideal of eschatologically oriented faith as defined in 11:1: he left his homeland, dwelt as a stranger in the land of Canaan, waited for the invisible city of God (11:8-10), and offered up Isaac as a sacrifice (11:17-19); patiently he held fast to the promise of God, confirmed as it was by an oath (6:13-15). Heirs of the promise to Abraham are, above all, those who believe (6:17), who are designated "seed of Abraham" (2:16). By virtue of having given to Melchizedek a tenth of everything and thus acknowledging Melchizedek's God and his priestly authority (Gen 14:17-20), Abraham became a witness to the eternal high-priesthood of Ps 110:4, which finds its eschatological realization in the priestly service of Christ (Heb 7:1-10).
In Jas 2:20-24, over against a false understanding of Paulinism, the justification of Abraham is based upon his action in response to God. Although the author is fully aware of the meaning of Gen 15:6 (Jas 2:23), he nevertheless sees the faith of Abraham as completed by the offering of Isaac and hence as justified, subsequently as it were, by God's justifying judgment (vv. 22f.). In the household code in 1 Peter 3 the fact that Sarah addressed Abraham as "lord" (Gen 18:12) is held to be evidence of an exemplary wife (v. 6).
ἄβυσσος, ου, ή <G12> G12 abyssos abyss, underworld*
Lit.: H. Bietenhard, DNTT II, 205-10.—J. Jeremias, TDNT I, 9f., 146-49, 657f.—B. Reicke, RGG III, 404-6.—S. Schulz, BHH III, 2057f.
1. The NT takes over the Jewish three-level cosmology: the world consists of heaven, earth, and underworld (Phil 2:10; Rev 5:13; → οὐρανός). In the underworld (ἄβυσσος) is not only the realm of the dead (Hades, → (ᾅδης) but also Gehenna, the place of punishment ("hell," → γέεννα).
Of the 9 occurrences of ἄβυσσος in the NT, 7 are found in Revelation alone; the term occurs once in Luke (8:31) and once in Paul (Rom 10:7, citing Ps 107:26). As in the LXX (e.g., Ps 70:20 LXX), ἄβυσσος in Rom 10:7 is the translation of Heb. tehôm (flood, deep, abyss).
2. In apocalyptic Judaism the abyss is regarded as the prison of punished demons (e.g., 1 Enoch 10:4-6; 18:11-16; Jub. 5:6-10). The NT shares this view (→ δαιμόνιον). Thus in Luke 8:31 the exorcised demons of Gerasa implore Jesus not to banish them into the ἄβυσσος. Those held there under lock and key (Rev 9:1; 20:1) and governed by Abaddon-Apollyon, the ruler of demons (9:11), are briefly freed by a fallen star (v. 2); with the smoke of hell (→ γέεννα) they rise to the earth (vv. 2f.). The Antichrist-"Beast" (cf. 12:17 [Greek editions v. 18]-13:10) also rises out of the abyss (11:7; 17:8), which is equated in Rev 17:8 with the sea of 12:18; 13:1 (cf. Ps 42:8; Dan 7:3). During the thousand-year reign (→ χίλιοι) Satan is held prisoner in the ἄβυσσος (Rev 20:1-3). Only Paul understands ἄβυσσος less as the place of the demons than as the realm of the dead into which no one can descend (Rom 10:7; → ἄδης).
In these statements about the άβυσσος as a prison for the powers opposed to God the NT demonstrates its genetic relationship to ancient Judaism. Like the OT and Judaism, however, it also holds to God's sovereignty over the demons: God decrees the opening and closing of the abyss (Rev. 9:1; 20:1, 3). With the entire post-Easter community (1 Cor 15:24-28; Phil 2:9f.; Col 2:10, 15; 1 John 3:8; etc.), Revelation praises the resurrected and exalted Christ as victor over Satan and his instruments (1:16; 2:12, 16; 17:14; 19:15, 21), which are forever consigned to the fiery place of punishment (19:20; 20:10, 14f.; → γέεννα).